Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation program:
Emotions, Relationships, Dependency, Behavior
This research list compiles summaries, abstracts, and results on social behavior, out of the 435 original studies and reviews of research published in independent peer-reviewed journals or other edited scientific publications from 1970 to the present.
Effect of meditation on social-emotional learning in middle school students.
Valosek L, Nidich S, Wendt S, Grant J, Nidich R. Education 2019 139(3):111-119. A total of 101 sixth-grade students, 51 students from a public West Coast Quiet Time school practicing Transcendental Meditation (TM) and 50 non-meditating students from a matched-control school, participated in the study. Both teacher rating of social-emotional competencies, using the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA), and student self-reported psychological distress, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) emotional symptoms scale, were completed at baseline and four-month posttest. Results: Significant improvement was found in the TM group compared to controls in social-emotional competencies for both the entire sample and high-risk subgroup (p values <.001; effect sizes = .78 and 1.32, respectively). A decrease in negative emotional symptoms was observed in high-risk TM students compared to controls (p < .073; effect size = –.70). Conclusion: These findings indicate the value of implementing TM to enhance social-emotional learning and decrease psychological distress in middle school students. Future studies are encouraged.
Transcending as a driver of development
Frederick Travisv. Transcending as a driver of development. ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, Issue: Meditation, 2016, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. ISSN 0077-8923.This paper draws from three different bodies of research to discuss the hypothesis that age-appropriate experiences enhance brain and cognitive development throughout the life span. These age-appropriate experiences could be considered as the drivers of development at each age, including drivers to foster development beyond adult abstract thinking, as described in Piaget’s formal operational stage. We explore how a nurturing caregiver is the driver in the ﬁrst 2 years of life, how language learning is the driver from 3 to 10 years, and how problem solving is the driver in the teenage years. To develop beyond adult rational thinking, we suggest that the driver is transcending thought, which can result when practicing meditations in the automatic self-transcending category, such as Transcendental Meditation.
Haaga DAF, Grosswald S, Gaylord-King C, Rainforth M, Tanner M, Travis F, Nidich S, Schneider RH. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on substance use among university students. Cardiology Research and Practice 2011, – published online at Cardiol Res Pract. 2011:537101 A randomized wait-list controlled trial (N = 295 university students) of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation program was conducted in an urban setting. Substance use was assessed by self-report at baseline and 3 months later. For smoking and illicit drug use, there were no significant differences between conditions. For alcohol use, sex X intervention condition interactions were significant; TM instruction lowered drinking rates among male but not female students. TM instruction could play a valuable role in reducing alcohol use among male university students. Limitations are noted, along with suggestions for further research. In conclusion, we found no evidence of an effect of Transcendental Meditation (TM) instruction on cigarette smoking or illicit drug use among university students, but TM instruction did lower alcohol use among male participants. Given that male students are more likely than female students to have alcohol use disorders, the impact of TM practice on alcohol intake among men is a very encouraging result. Additional studies with larger samples of baseline substance users (particularly for cigarettes and illicit drugs), multi-method assessments of substance use, higher adherence to the recommended twice daily practice, and a longer period of TM practice would be needed before concluding definitively that the TM program does not also reduce drinking among female students or illicit drug use or cigarette smoking in college student samples of either sex.
Orme-Johnson DW. Commentary: the use of meditation in corrections. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 2011 55(4):662-664 I was pleased to see that the International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology published a review of the effects of different meditation practices in corrections settings (Himelstein, 2010). Several key findings on meditation in corrections were not included in the review, which I would like to summarize here.
Studies not reviewed. The review covered only 6 of the 17 studies on the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique in corrections (35% of the evidence; Hawkins, Orme-Johnson, & Durchholz, 2005). Among the omissions were four randomized longitudinal studies with a total of 226 subjects and 25 studies on substance use. The four randomized trials ranged in length from 2 weeks to 10 months and found significant decreases in TM subjects compared to controls on self-report psychological measures of depression, neuroticism, sleep disturbance, suspicion, hostility, aggression, and assault (Hawkins et al., 2005). Noteworthy is that the randomized studies also found significant improvements on “hard” archival behavioral measures, such as reduced prison rule infractions and increased participation in educational and recreational programs during 10 months of practicing the TM technique, as well as reduced neurochemical stress markers after 41⁄2 months. Himelstein did review the three studies showing that TM practice reduces recidivism by up to 43.5% fewer new convictions 15 years after release from prison compared to matched controls.
Neuroendocrine mechanism. Also missing from the review was mention of a seminal paper by Walton and Levitsky (2003) on neuroendocrine mechanisms. Briefly, whereas reduced serotonin levels have been associated with impulsive (unpremeditated) aggression and attempted suicide, TM practice has been shown to increase serotonin metabolites. A wide range of evidence indicates that regular practice of the TM technique balances the autonomic nervous system, reducing chronic baseline activation levels of the sympathetic nervous system and improving reactivity to stress. States or behaviors associated with aggression, such as hostility and alcohol consumption, have also been correlated with elevated cortisol secretion, and TM practice has acute and long-term effects of reducing cortisol and increasing the ratio of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) to cortisol, a sensitive measure of balance in the system.
Psychological mechanism. Another important area of meditation research missed by the review includes studies testing the hypothesis that offenders are as if “frozen” in an immature state of ego development and that practice of the TM technique unfreezes development (Alexander & Orme-Johnson, 2003). To test this hypothesis, 271 maximum- security prisoners were studied over a 15.7-month period for longitudinal changes in International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology XX(X) self-development and psychopathology due to the TM technique and other prison programs (counseling, drug rehabilitation, or participation in Muslim or Christian groups). Controlling for pretest scores, overlap of membership, and 19 demographic and criminal history factors, TM members compared to controls increased significantly in Loevinger’s ego development scale, an objective test of global personality development. The results indicate the development of a more mature, responsible, self- monitoring, self-respecting, and communicative personality. TM subjects also showed reductions in aggression, schizophrenic symptoms, and trait-anxiety (Alexander & Orme-Johnson, 2003).
Different types of meditation. There are basic differences among meditation techniques with regard to the sensory, cognitive, and physical processes they require, their neurophysiological effects, and their behavioral outcomes. Travis and Shear (in press) have classified meditation techniques into three distinct types of practices according to their electroencephalographic (EEG) signatures. These three types of meditation are focused attention, open monitoring, and automatic self-transcending. Focused attention or concentration techniques are characterized by EEG in the beta2 (20-30 Hz) and gamma (30-50 Hz) frequency bands, which are associated with the voluntary sustained control of attention to keep it focused on the object of meditation, such as a specific thought or sensory focus. Open monitoring or mindfulness-based meditation techniques (the other type besides the TM technique reviewed by Himelstein) are characterized by frontal theta (5-8 Hz) EEG and perhaps occipital gamma, in association with dispassionate nonevaluative monitoring of ongoing experience (Travis & Shear, in press). Frontal theta occurs when the brain is inhibiting sensory input in order to carry out internal mental processes, as it does when there is a need to block out distractions while focusing inward, as during mental arithmetic (Sauseng & Klimesch, 2008). The heart of mindfulness techniques is to learn to monitor ongoing experience in and outside of meditation to develop a nonjudgmental attitude and healthier, more adaptive attitudes and behavioral reactions.
In contrast, the purpose of the TM technique is to transcend any mental activity during meditation, and there are no specific practices to be done outside of meditation, only to act naturally. Controlled and randomized studies have shown that the TM practice increases alpha coherence and synchrony both within and outside of meditation (Travis et al., 2009), and this, along with the concomitant reduction in stress physiology mentioned above, appears to account for its effects, not any change in attitude or cognitive style.
Goodman RS, Goodman DH, Orme-Johnson DW. Congressional bipartisanship through a consciousness-based approach. Proceedings of the 64th Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 2006 MPSA06 proceeding:137454.doc In this paper we have investigated the theory and praxis of transcending human boundaries of thought by individuals, and by individuals coming together into conscious groups to improve society through their collective practice of TM and TM-Sidhi program. We have discussed the experience of transcendental or pure consciousness and its correlates with cutting-edge superstring unified field theories in physics, and the unusual qualities of coherent systems in nature. The National Demonstration Project (June 8, 1993 to July 31, 1993) had up to 4,000 participants throughout the Washington, D.C. area (show photo) who came from all over the United States and the world. Predictions were lodged in advance with an independent project review board. Of particular importance, crime and support for the President and increased cordiality in the city as evidenced by quality of life variables as distinct from each other as one could imagine, such as hospital trauma and complaints against the police all moved in concert in a positive direction. Taken separately, the results are impressive; taken as a whole these results are unassailable and point to the need for researchers, politicians and people of good will to seriously examine the contention that in the vicinity of transcending, in the vicinity of coherence creating groups, in the vicinity of people experiencing their inmost Self, harmony develops and negative tendencies drop off. Washington, D.C., which has a reputation as a murder capital, and Congress, which has been populated by members at loggerheads in many cases, ought to consider this Demonstration Project as pointing to a real and lasting solution to intransigent paralysis. Results comparing 3 periods of Congressional bipartisan vote patterns in 1993 using Rice’s Index of Likeness and ANOVA indicated that group practice of the Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi® programs in Washington, DC enhanced bipartisanship. Abstract: Congress is purported to reflect the will of the people. In recent years, it has reflected the very divided nature of the collective mood of the country. The research presented in this paper examines the Vedic perspective of collective consciousness. According to this perspective, actions and pronouncements of the individuals in the various branches of government are reflections of the total inputs of consciousness of the people of a nation, their levels of stress, and their positive or negative emotions and thought. For the last 25 years, a group of researchers has examined practical interventions proposed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi from this ancient Vedic tradition of India, to alleviate divisive and intransigent tendencies in the individual and society. Vedic theory proposes that the unifying value fundamentally inherent in human consciousness, will balance opposing tendencies. John Hagelin, a quantum physicist has noted that at 10-33 centimeters of the Planck scale, the fundamental force and matter fields are united into one underlying “Unified Field.” He also indicates that the mathematically defined properties of the quantum Unified Field have a one to one correspondence with the Unified Field of human consciousness described by Vedic texts. This Unified Field of human awareness can be systematically accessed through practice of the Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi® programs. Fifty carefully designed studies conducted on the societal level have indicated that when these technologies of consciousness are practiced in groups (the size of at least the square root of 1% of a society) the society responds with a more encompassing and balanced perspective. This paper describes research on bipartisan voting patterns in the Senate and House. The predictor variable is the number of individuals practicing the TM and TM-Sidhi programs in a group in Washington, D.C. in the summer of 1993. The data, all Congressional roll-call votes in 1993, were divided into three periods: before, during and after the group assembly, and scaled utilizing Rice’s (1925) Index of Likeness. Planned comparisons using ANOVA and Tukey HSD were calculated. Statistically significant results indicated that in contrast to the divisiveness that marked the spring voting patterns, the summer and fall voting patterns for both Senate and House reflected greater bipartisanship.
Broome JR, Orme-Johnson D, Schmidt-Wilk J. Worksite stress reduction through the Transcendental Meditation program. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):235-276 An experiment on stress reduction using the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique and Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) was conducted at a South African firm with 80 employees. Psychological stress decreased significantly over 5.5 months for the TM group (p<.0002) with 67% of the decrease in the first two weeks; for the PMR group (p<.03); and near significantly for on-site controls (p<.09). Blood pressure reduced significantly only for the TM group.
Brown CL. Overcoming barriers to use of promising research among elite Middle East policy groups.
Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):489-546 This qualitative research examines how barriers to the use of new theoretical constructs in social science research might be overcome. Five groups of elite members of the Middle East policy community – peer reviewers, newspaper reporters, Congress people, non-governmental influentials and US diplomats – assessed a research study that explored a strategy for reducing conflict in the Middle East. That study was published in the Journal of Conflict Resolution (International Peace Project in the Middle East: The Effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field or IPPME) and found that when a critical mass of people used the Transcendental Meditation technique (e.g., crime and war intensity) were reduced in the surrounding population. Over half of each group reviewing the research rejected IPPME immediately without examining scientific merit. Stereotyping and prejudice were evident. Others, who assessed scientific quality independently of their organizational philosophies and practices and exhibited greater curiosity, were likelier to consider IPPME further.
Hawkins MA, Orme-Johnson DW, Durchholz CF. Fulfilling the rehabilitative ideal through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programs: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):443-488 Unprecedented wide-ranging benefits of The TM Technique have been demonstrated, including improvements in biochemistry, physiology, as well as improvement in psychosocial, cognitive and behavioral measurements. Reduced risk factors for criminal conduct have been demonstrated along with increased “protective factors” and societal prevention. The TM Program has been applied successfully to offender populations, at-risk populations and in the general population for crime prevention.
Heaton D, Schmidt-Wilk J, Travis FT. Constructs, methods, and measures for researching spirituality in organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management 2004 17(1):62-82 Cross-sectional studies can examine correlations between measures of spiritual practice, measures of pure spirituality experiences, and indicators of multiple facets of applied spirituality. The hypothesis of such studies would be that greater frequency of pure spirituality, resulting from spiritual practices, would be correlated with higher levels of applied spirituality. For example, applied spirituality could be measured in terms of adaptability to change, satisfaction in work relationship, nurturance in leadership, and social and environmental responsibility in business practices. Quasi-experimental longitudinal studies can test hypotheses regarding pre-post changes from implementing programs for enhancing spirituality in organizations. Outcome variables can include physical and mental health, absenteeism, productivity, and financial performance. Finally, the model suggests that a holistic framework of health, happiness, wisdom, success, and fulfillment can be used by managers, job seekers, and investors to evaluate the scope of the goals of an organization and to assess its holistic performance.
Alexander CN, Orme-Johnson DW. Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners II: longitudinal study of development and psychopathology. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):127-160 271 maximum-security prisoners who were participating in either the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program, counseling, drug rehabilitation, or faith-based groups. Only regular participants in the TM program changed significantly. TM subjects showed significant reductions in aggression (p < .05), especially those who meditated at least twice a week (p < .005). In addition, they showed reduced schizophrenic symptoms (p < .05), decreased trait-anxiety (p < .10, trend), and increased frequency of postconceptual experience of higher states of consciousness (p < .01)
King MS. Natural law and the Bhagavad-Gita: the Vedic concept of natural law. Ratio Juris 2003 16:399-415 Abstract. Western natural law theory emphasizes the derivation of principles of right action said to be universal and objective from the application of practical reasonableness to the pursuit of basic human goods that are self-evident or based on human nature. Critics say its methodology is inherently subjective. In contrast, the Vedic approach to natural law of the Bhagavad-Gita emphasizes the full development of a universal aspect of human nature—consciousness—to promote right action. A healthy person with a developed intellect, clear mind, balanced emotions and full perception is best placed to fulfill his or her society’s highest ideals of ethical and lawful conduct. The Vedic approach advocates a supportive social environment and the use of meditation techniques to promote such development. Research has found that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program promotes improvement in mind, body and behavior. For example, offenders in Australia, the United States and Senegal practicing the technique experienced decreased substance abuse and recidivism and improved wellbeing. From a scientific perspective, TM promotes these improvements by producing a unique psychophysiological state of restful alertness that dissolves stress that blocks the unfoldment of full potential in life.
Anklesaria FK, King MS. The Transcendental Meditation program in the Senegalese penitentiary system. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):303-318 Between 1987 and 1989, more than 11,000 inmates and 900 correctional officers and prison administrators in 31 of the 34 prisons in the West African nation of Senegal were instructed in the Transcendental Meditation1 program. Rule infractions decreased, medical expenses went down 70%, and recidivism dropped from 90% in the pre-meditation period to less than 3% after the program was established.
Anklesaria FK, King MS. The Enlightened Sentencing Project: a judicial innovation. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):35-46 Probationers “sentenced” to The TM Technique report less anger, decreased substance abuse,. Judges report the probationers practicing TM have greater self-esteem and self-control, positive social attitude, increased ability to secure employment. Starting in 1996, Judge David C. Mason, a Missouri circuit court judge began sentencing probationers (offenses from drunk driving to manslaughter) to learn The TM Technique and to attend classes on the technique. As of the publication of this study in 2003, 6 judges in Missouri have sentenced 100 probationers to The TM Program. Probation Officers in Missouri are also experiencing the wide range of benefits of the TM Program. Through the creative use of existing laws, the Enlightened Sentencing Project is an example of successful judicial innovation to meet a social need.
Goodman RS, Walton KG, Orme-Johnson DW, Boyer R. The Transcendental Meditation program: a consciousness-based developmental technology for rehabilitation and crime prevention. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):1-34 Documentation and explanation of the effects of the TM Technique spanning the fields of psychology, physiology, and sociology. Descriptions of practical applications of The TM Program to rehabilitation and prevention.
Alexander CN, Walton KG, Orme-Johnson DW, Goodman RS, Pallone NJ (eds). Transcendental Meditation in Criminal Rehabilitation and Crime Prevention. Binghamton, New York: Haworth Press, 2003 Benefits of The TM Technique experienced in 4 prison systems as well as, wide-ranging benefits of the TM program experienced by probationers that had committed offenses ranging from drunk driving to manslaughter. A comprehensive summary describing risk factors associated with the likelihood of criminal behavior and substance misuse and summarizing research indicating how the TM program successfully addresses many of these factors. A macroscopic view of the role of the TM program in criminal rehabilitation.
Alexander CN, Walton KG, Goodman R. Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners I: cross-sectional differences in development and psychopathology.Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):97-126 Significant improvements in the TM group including improved ego development (p<.0005), improved interpersonal relationships (p<.05), reduced psychopathic deviation (p<.01), reduced anxiety (p<.05), reduced aggression (p<.05), reduced tension (p<.05), and reduced introversion (p<.05)These outcomes, identify the TM program as an effective tool for promoting the psychological health and personal maturation necessary for lasting rehabilitation of maximum-security inmates.
Hawkins MA. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in criminal rehabilitation and substance abuse recovery: a review of the research. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):47-66 Incarcerated Offenders show decreased aggression, decreased hostility, decreased in-prison rule infractions and decreased substance abuse as well as increased moral judgment. Significant reduction in the risk factors that underlie substance dependence, particularly reduction in anxiety, depression, neuroticism, and other forms of psychological distress. The TM Program produces a wide range of improvements in psychophysiological well-being as indicated by better psychological health, enhanced autonomic functioning, and improved neuroendocrine balance resulting in significantly lower recidivism rates for parolee practitioners and lower relapse rates for addicts.
Hawkins M, Alexander CN, Travis FT, Camelia CR, Walton KG, Durchholz CF, Rainforth MW. Consciousness-based approach to rehabilitation of inmates in the Netherlands Antilles: psychosocial and cognitive changes. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):205-228 In TM Group, significant decrease in Cognitive Distortion (thinking errors) (p<.05) and significant increase in Intelligence-related Measures (p<.05), with a increase in psychological well-being (p=.082) Practice of TM positively affects recognized correlates of criminal behavior. TM can reduce a risk factor while simultaneously increasing protective factors.
Jones C, Clayborne M, Grant JD, Rutherford G. Attacking crime at its source: consciousness-based education in the prevention of violence and anti-social behavior. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation2003 36(1-4):229-256 Unique effectiveness of the TM Program due to its ability to simultaneously deal with multiple causes of crime and violence. The practice of the TM Technique reduces 23 identified risk factors for crime in four broad categories-physiological, psychological, sociological circumstances and substance abuse.
Orme-Johnson DW, Moore RM. First prison study using the Transcendental Meditation program: La Tuna Federal Penitentiary. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):89-96 After practicing the TM Technique for 2 months, inmates showed increased stability of the autonomic nervous system, decreased rigidity, decreased obsessive thoughts, decreased compulsive behavior, decreased psychasthenia (including phobias and excessive anxiety), decreased social introversion, decreased SSRR, improved integrated function of the frontal lobes beneficial for rehabilitation.
Rainforth M, Alexander CN, Cavanaugh KL. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on recidivism of former inmates of Folsom Prison: survival analysis of 15-year follow-up data. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 35:181-204 TM parolees had lower re-conviction rates (46.7%) compared to controls (66.7%), a highly significant (p=0.0008) 43.5% reduction
Orme-Johnson DW. Preventing crime though the Maharishi Effect. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation2003 36(1-4):257-281 Criminologists view crime as a multidimensional problem that is best prevented by programs that strengthen informal social control, which is the internalized propensity of the individual to find rewarding behavior patterns within the law. This paper introduces the theory and research on crime prevention through the Maharishi Effect, a powerful mechanism of increasing informal social control by increasing coherence and decreasing stress in the most holistic level of society, its collective consciousness. A review of 15 published studies conducted on city, state, national, and international levels finds strong evidence that crime is reduced and quality of life is improved when 1% of a population practices the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program. This is termed the Maharishi Effect. This review also finds that crime is reduced and quality of life improved when groups the size of the square root of 1% of a population practice the more powerful TM-Sidhi program together in one place. This is called the Extended Maharishi Effect. Theoretically, such a transformation is made possible by the ability of the TM and TM-Sidhi programs to provide direct experience of the unified field of natural law in the simplest form of human awareness, transcendental consciousness, which brings life in accord with natural law. This program is easily implemented and highly cost effective as a primary protective factor against crime.
Barnes VA, Bauza LB, Treiber FA. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2003 1(1):10 The TM group had lower rates of absenteeism, suspensions and school rule violations than the control group.
Alexander CN, Rainforth MV, Frank PR, Grant JD, Von Stade C. Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners III: reduced recidivism. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):161-180 Inmates who practiced the TM Technique experienced a reduction in recidivism of 33%, which was statistically significant (p = .042). Separate comparisons showed that the TM group also had lower re-incarceration rates than each of the four other programs, with proportionate reductions in recidivism ranging from 29% to 42% (p = .007 to .073). In addition, the TM group compared to all non-meditating subjects had a lower rate of re-incarceration due to new convictions (47% lower, proportionately; p = .045) and a 27% proportionately lower rate of re-incarceration/warrant for arrest (p = .069). The pattern of reduced recidivism for TM program members was maintained in multiple regression analyses, controlling for background and release variables (e.g., parole vs. full discharge, institution of release, drug history). These findings are consistent with the proposition that the reduced psychopathology and accelerated psychological development resulting from the TM program are responsible for reductions in criminal behavior.
Magill DL. Cost savings from teaching the Transcendental Meditation program. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):319-332 Total savings over 5 years for every 1,000 inmates and 100 correctional officers instructed in the TM Program is estimated at $31.6 million
King MS. Geraldton Alternative Sentencing Regime: applying therapeutic and holistic jurisprudence in the bush. Criminal Law Journal 2002 26:260-271 The Geraldton Alternative Sentencing Regime endeavors to promote offender rehabilitation by taking a holistic, therapeutic, innovative and developmental approach that uses court processes to promote healing, encourages individual responsibility and utilizes a wide range of programs. Results from its first year of operation suggest that court processes used positively impacted on self-esteem and participants’ commitment to rehabilitation, supporting a key claim of therapeutic jurisprudence. Graduates report improved health, stopping or decreasing use of alcohol and illicit drugs, increased motivation to work or study and to stop offending and improved relationships. Participants practicing the self-development technique Transcendental Meditation report reduced substance abuse and improved well-being from the practice.
Walton KG, Levitsky DK. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on neuroendocrine abnormalities associated with aggression and crime. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):67-88 The TM Program reduces stress induced abnormalities in the neuroendocrine systems. Abnormalities in the neuroendocrine systems have been related to impulsivity, aggression and crime.