Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation program:

Emotions, Relationships, Dependency, Behavior

This research list compiles summaries, abstracts, and results on social behavior, out of the 435 original studies and reviews of research published in independent peer-reviewed journals or other edited scientific publications from 1970 to the present.

Social Behavior | Psychological | Social Emotional Learning | 2019

Effect of meditation on social-emotional learning in middle school students.

Valosek L, Nidich S, Wendt S, Grant J, Nidich R.  Education 2019 139(3):111-119. A total of 101 sixth-grade students, 51 students from a public West Coast Quiet Time school practicing Transcendental Meditation (TM) and 50 non-meditating students from a matched-control school, participated in the study. Both teacher rating of social-emotional competencies, using the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA), and student self-reported psychological distress, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) emotional symptoms scale, were completed at baseline and four-month posttest. Results: Significant improvement was found in the TM group compared to controls in social-emotional competencies for both the entire sample and high-risk subgroup (p values <.001; effect sizes = .78 and 1.32, respectively). A decrease in negative emotional symptoms was observed in high-risk TM students compared to controls (p < .073; effect size = –.70). Conclusion: These findings indicate the value of implementing TM to enhance social-emotional learning and decrease psychological distress in middle school students. Future studies are encouraged.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Driver Development | 2016

Transcending as a driver of development

Frederick Travisv. Transcending as a driver of development. ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, Issue: Meditation, 2016, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. ISSN 0077-8923.This paper draws from three different bodies of research to discuss the hypothesis that age-appropriate experiences enhance brain and cognitive development throughout the life span. These age-appropriate experiences could be considered as the drivers of development at each age, including drivers to foster development beyond adult abstract thinking, as described in Piaget’s formal operational stage. We explore how a nurturing caregiver is the driver in the first 2 years of life, how language learning is the driver from 3 to 10 years, and how problem solving is the driver in the teenage years. To develop beyond adult rational thinking, we suggest that the driver is transcending thought, which can result when practicing meditations in the automatic self-transcending category, such as Transcendental Meditation.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Addiction | Reduced Substance Abuse in College Students | 2011

Haaga DAF, Grosswald S, Gaylord-King C, Rainforth M, Tanner M, Travis F, Nidich S, Schneider RH. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on substance use among university students. Cardiology Research and Practice 2011, – published online at Cardiol Res Pract. 2011:537101 A randomized wait-list controlled trial (N = 295 university students) of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation program was conducted in an urban setting. Substance use was assessed by self-report at baseline and 3 months later. For smoking and illicit drug use, there were no significant differences between conditions. For alcohol use, sex X intervention condition interactions were significant; TM instruction lowered drinking rates among male but not female students. TM instruction could play a valuable role in reducing alcohol use among male university students. Limitations are noted, along with suggestions for further research. In conclusion, we found no evidence of an effect of Transcendental Meditation (TM) instruction on cigarette smoking or illicit drug use among university students, but TM instruction did lower alcohol use among male participants. Given that male students are more likely than female students to have alcohol use disorders, the impact of TM practice on alcohol intake among men is a very encouraging result. Additional studies with larger samples of baseline substance users (particularly for cigarettes and illicit drugs), multi-method assessments of substance use, higher adherence to the recommended twice daily practice, and a longer period of TM practice would be needed before concluding definitively that the TM program does not also reduce drinking among female students or illicit drug use or cigarette smoking in college student samples of either sex.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections Commentary | 2011

Orme-Johnson DW. Commentary: the use of meditation in corrections. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 2011 55(4):662-664 I was pleased to see that the International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology published a review of the effects of different meditation practices in corrections settings (Himelstein, 2010). Several key findings on meditation in corrections were not included in the review, which I would like to summarize here.

Studies not reviewed. The review covered only 6 of the 17 studies on the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique in corrections (35% of the evidence; Hawkins, Orme-Johnson, & Durchholz, 2005). Among the omissions were four randomized longitudinal studies with a total of 226 subjects and 25 studies on substance use. The four randomized trials ranged in length from 2 weeks to 10 months and found significant decreases in TM subjects compared to controls on self-report psychological measures of depression, neuroticism, sleep disturbance, suspicion, hostility, aggression, and assault (Hawkins et al., 2005). Noteworthy is that the randomized studies also found significant improvements on “hard” archival behavioral measures, such as reduced prison rule infractions and increased participation in educational and recreational programs during 10 months of practicing the TM technique, as well as reduced neurochemical stress markers after 41⁄2 months. Himelstein did review the three studies showing that TM practice reduces recidivism by up to 43.5% fewer new convictions 15 years after release from prison compared to matched controls.

Neuroendocrine mechanism. Also missing from the review was mention of a seminal paper by Walton and Levitsky (2003) on neuroendocrine mechanisms. Briefly, whereas reduced serotonin levels have been associated with impulsive (unpremeditated) aggression and attempted suicide, TM practice has been shown to increase serotonin metabolites. A wide range of evidence indicates that regular practice of the TM technique balances the autonomic nervous system, reducing chronic baseline activation levels of the sympathetic nervous system and improving reactivity to stress. States or behaviors associated with aggression, such as hostility and alcohol consumption, have also been correlated with elevated cortisol secretion, and TM practice has acute and long-term effects of reducing cortisol and increasing the ratio of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) to cortisol, a sensitive measure of balance in the system.

Psychological mechanism. Another important area of meditation research missed by the review includes studies testing the hypothesis that offenders are as if “frozen” in an immature state of ego development and that practice of the TM technique unfreezes development (Alexander & Orme-Johnson, 2003). To test this hypothesis, 271 maximum- security prisoners were studied over a 15.7-month period for longitudinal changes in International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology XX(X) self-development and psychopathology due to the TM technique and other prison programs (counseling, drug rehabilitation, or participation in Muslim or Christian groups). Controlling for pretest scores, overlap of membership, and 19 demographic and criminal history factors, TM members compared to controls increased significantly in Loevinger’s ego development scale, an objective test of global personality development. The results indicate the development of a more mature, responsible, self- monitoring, self-respecting, and communicative personality. TM subjects also showed reductions in aggression, schizophrenic symptoms, and trait-anxiety (Alexander & Orme-Johnson, 2003).

Different types of meditation. There are basic differences among meditation techniques with regard to the sensory, cognitive, and physical processes they require, their neurophysiological effects, and their behavioral outcomes. Travis and Shear (in press) have classified meditation techniques into three distinct types of practices according to their electroencephalographic (EEG) signatures. These three types of meditation are focused attention, open monitoring, and automatic self-transcending. Focused attention or concentration techniques are characterized by EEG in the beta2 (20-30 Hz) and gamma (30-50 Hz) frequency bands, which are associated with the voluntary sustained control of attention to keep it focused on the object of meditation, such as a specific thought or sensory focus. Open monitoring or mindfulness-based meditation techniques (the other type besides the TM technique reviewed by Himelstein) are characterized by frontal theta (5-8 Hz) EEG and perhaps occipital gamma, in association with dispassionate nonevaluative monitoring of ongoing experience (Travis & Shear, in press). Frontal theta occurs when the brain is inhibiting sensory input in order to carry out internal mental processes, as it does when there is a need to block out distractions while focusing inward, as during mental arithmetic (Sauseng & Klimesch, 2008). The heart of mindfulness techniques is to learn to monitor ongoing experience in and outside of meditation to develop a nonjudgmental attitude and healthier, more adaptive attitudes and behavioral reactions.

In contrast, the purpose of the TM technique is to transcend any mental activity during meditation, and there are no specific practices to be done outside of meditation, only to act naturally. Controlled and randomized studies have shown that the TM practice increases alpha coherence and synchrony both within and outside of meditation (Travis et al., 2009), and this, along with the concomitant reduction in stress physiology mentioned above, appears to account for its effects, not any change in attitude or cognitive style.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: Bi-Partisanship | 2006

Goodman RS, Goodman DH, Orme-Johnson DW. Congressional bipartisanship through a consciousness-based approach. Proceedings of the 64th Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 2006 MPSA06 proceeding:137454.doc In this paper we have investigated the theory and praxis of transcending human boundaries of thought by individuals, and by individuals coming together into conscious groups to improve society through their collective practice of TM and TM-Sidhi program. We have discussed the experience of transcendental or pure consciousness and its correlates with cutting-edge superstring unified field theories in physics, and the unusual qualities of coherent systems in nature. The National Demonstration Project (June 8, 1993 to July 31, 1993) had up to 4,000 participants throughout the Washington, D.C. area (show photo) who came from all over the United States and the world. Predictions were lodged in advance with an independent project review board. Of particular importance, crime and support for the President and increased cordiality in the city as evidenced by quality of life variables as distinct from each other as one could imagine, such as hospital trauma and complaints against the police all moved in concert in a positive direction. Taken separately, the results are impressive; taken as a whole these results are unassailable and point to the need for researchers, politicians and people of good will to seriously examine the contention that in the vicinity of transcending, in the vicinity of coherence creating groups, in the vicinity of people experiencing their inmost Self, harmony develops and negative tendencies drop off. Washington, D.C., which has a reputation as a murder capital, and Congress, which has been populated by members at loggerheads in many cases, ought to consider this Demonstration Project as pointing to a real and lasting solution to intransigent paralysis. Results comparing 3 periods of Congressional bipartisan vote patterns in 1993 using Rice’s Index of Likeness and ANOVA indicated that group practice of the Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi® programs in Washington, DC enhanced bipartisanship. Abstract: Congress is purported to reflect the will of the people. In recent years, it has reflected the very divided nature of the collective mood of the country. The research presented in this paper examines the Vedic perspective of collective consciousness. According to this perspective, actions and pronouncements of the individuals in the various branches of government are reflections of the total inputs of consciousness of the people of a nation, their levels of stress, and their positive or negative emotions and thought. For the last 25 years, a group of researchers has examined practical interventions proposed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi from this ancient Vedic tradition of India, to alleviate divisive and intransigent tendencies in the individual and society. Vedic theory proposes that the unifying value fundamentally inherent in human consciousness, will balance opposing tendencies. John Hagelin, a quantum physicist has noted that at 10-33 centimeters of the Planck scale, the fundamental force and matter fields are united into one underlying “Unified Field.” He also indicates that the mathematically defined properties of the quantum Unified Field have a one to one correspondence with the Unified Field of human consciousness described by Vedic texts. This Unified Field of human awareness can be systematically accessed through practice of the Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi® programs. Fifty carefully designed studies conducted on the societal level have indicated that when these technologies of consciousness are practiced in groups (the size of at least the square root of 1% of a society) the society responds with a more encompassing and balanced perspective. This paper describes research on bipartisan voting patterns in the Senate and House. The predictor variable is the number of individuals practicing the TM and TM-Sidhi programs in a group in Washington, D.C. in the summer of 1993. The data, all Congressional roll-call votes in 1993, were divided into three periods: before, during and after the group assembly, and scaled utilizing Rice’s (1925) Index of Likeness. Planned comparisons using ANOVA and Tukey HSD were calculated. Statistically significant results indicated that in contrast to the divisiveness that marked the spring voting patterns, the summer and fall voting patterns for both Senate and House reflected greater bipartisanship.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Work-site Stress Reduction | RCT | 2005

Broome JR, Orme-Johnson D, Schmidt-Wilk J. Worksite stress reduction through the Transcendental Meditation program. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):235-276 An experiment on stress reduction using the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique and Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) was conducted at a South African firm with 80 employees. Psychological stress decreased significantly over 5.5 months for the TM group (p<.0002) with 67% of the decrease in the first two weeks; for the PMR group (p<.03); and near significantly for on-site controls (p<.09). Blood pressure reduced significantly only for the TM group.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: World | 2005

Brown CL. Overcoming barriers to use of promising research among elite Middle East policy groups.
Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):489-546
This qualitative research examines how barriers to the use of new theoretical constructs in social science research might be overcome. Five groups of elite members of the Middle East policy community – peer reviewers, newspaper reporters, Congress people, non-governmental influentials and US diplomats – assessed a research study that explored a strategy for reducing conflict in the Middle East. That study was published in the Journal of Conflict Resolution (International Peace Project in the Middle East: The Effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field or IPPME) and found that when a critical mass of people used the Transcendental Meditation technique (e.g., crime and war intensity) were reduced in the surrounding population. Over half of each group reviewing the research rejected IPPME immediately without examining scientific merit. Stereotyping and prejudice were evident. Others, who assessed scientific quality independently of their organizational philosophies and practices and exhibited greater curiosity, were likelier to consider IPPME further.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2005

Hawkins MA, Orme-Johnson DW, Durchholz CF. Fulfilling the rehabilitative ideal through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programs: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):443-488 Unprecedented wide-ranging benefits of The TM Technique have been demonstrated, including improvements in biochemistry, physiology, as well as improvement in psychosocial, cognitive and behavioral measurements. Reduced risk factors for criminal conduct have been demonstrated along with increased “protective factors” and societal prevention. The TM Program has been applied successfully to offender populations, at-risk populations and in the general population for crime prevention.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Spirituality in Organizations | 2004

Heaton D, Schmidt-Wilk J, Travis FT. Constructs, methods, and measures for researching spirituality in organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management 2004 17(1):62-82 Cross-sectional studies can examine correlations between measures of spiritual practice, measures of pure spirituality experiences, and indicators of multiple facets of applied spirituality. The hypothesis of such studies would be that greater frequency of pure spirituality, resulting from spiritual practices, would be correlated with higher levels of applied spirituality. For example, applied spirituality could be measured in terms of adaptability to change, satisfaction in work relationship, nurturance in leadership, and social and environmental responsibility in business practices. Quasi-experimental longitudinal studies can test hypotheses regarding pre-post changes from implementing programs for enhancing spirituality in organizations. Outcome variables can include physical and mental health, absenteeism, productivity, and financial performance. Finally, the model suggests that a holistic framework of health, happiness, wisdom, success, and fulfillment can be used by managers, job seekers, and investors to evaluate the scope of the goals of an organization and to assess its holistic performance.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections Reduced Schizophrenic Symptoms, Reduced Aggression, Decreased Anxiety | 2003

Alexander CN, Orme-Johnson DW. Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners II: longitudinal study of development and psychopathology. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):127-160 271 maximum-security prisoners who were participating in either the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program, counseling, drug rehabilitation, or faith-based groups. Only regular participants in the TM program changed significantly. TM subjects showed significant reductions in aggression (p < .05), especially those who meditated at least twice a week (p < .005). In addition, they showed reduced schizophrenic symptoms (p < .05), decreased trait-anxiety (p < .10, trend), and increased frequency of postconceptual experience of higher states of consciousness (p < .01)

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Natural Law | 2003

King MS. Natural law and the Bhagavad-Gita: the Vedic concept of natural law. Ratio Juris 2003 16:399-415  Abstract. Western natural law theory emphasizes the derivation of principles of right action said to be universal and objective from the application of practical reasonableness to the pursuit of basic human goods that are self-evident or based on human nature. Critics say its methodology is inherently subjective. In contrast, the Vedic approach to natural law of the Bhagavad-Gita emphasizes the full development of a universal aspect of human nature—consciousness—to promote right action. A healthy person with a developed intellect, clear mind, balanced emotions and full perception is best placed to fulfill his or her society’s highest ideals of ethical and lawful conduct. The Vedic approach advocates a supportive social environment and the use of meditation techniques to promote such development. Research has found that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program promotes improvement in mind, body and behavior. For example, offenders in Australia, the United States and Senegal practicing the technique experienced decreased substance abuse and recidivism and improved wellbeing. From a scientific perspective, TM promotes these improvements by producing a unique psychophysiological state of restful alertness that dissolves stress that blocks the unfoldment of full potential in life.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Anklesaria FK, King MS. The Transcendental Meditation program in the Senegalese penitentiary system. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):303-318 Between 1987 and 1989, more than 11,000 inmates and 900 correctional officers and prison administrators in 31 of the 34 prisons in the West African nation of Senegal were instructed in the Transcendental Meditation1 program. Rule infractions decreased, medical expenses went down 70%, and recidivism dropped from 90% in the pre-meditation period to less than 3% after the program was established.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Anklesaria FK, King MS. The Enlightened Sentencing Project: a judicial innovation. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):35-46 Probationers “sentenced” to The TM Technique report less anger, decreased substance abuse,. Judges report the probationers practicing TM have greater self-esteem and self-control, positive social attitude, increased ability to secure employment. Starting in 1996, Judge David C. Mason, a Missouri circuit court judge began sentencing probationers (offenses from drunk driving to manslaughter) to learn The TM Technique and to attend classes on the technique. As of the publication of this study in 2003, 6 judges in Missouri have sentenced 100 probationers to The TM Program. Probation Officers in Missouri are also experiencing the wide range of benefits of the TM Program. Through the creative use of existing laws, the Enlightened Sentencing Project is an example of successful judicial innovation to meet a social need.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Goodman RS, Walton KG, Orme-Johnson DW, Boyer R. The Transcendental Meditation program: a consciousness-based developmental technology for rehabilitation and crime prevention. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):1-34 Documentation and explanation of the effects of the TM Technique spanning the fields of psychology, physiology, and sociology. Descriptions of practical applications of The TM Program to rehabilitation and prevention.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Alexander CN, Walton KG, Orme-Johnson DW, Goodman RS, Pallone NJ (eds). Transcendental Meditation in Criminal Rehabilitation and Crime Prevention. Binghamton, New York: Haworth Press, 2003 Benefits of The TM Technique experienced in 4 prison systems as well as, wide-ranging benefits of the TM program experienced by probationers that had committed offenses ranging from drunk driving to manslaughter. A comprehensive summary describing risk factors associated with the likelihood of criminal behavior and substance misuse and summarizing research indicating how the TM program successfully addresses many of these factors. A macroscopic view of the role of the TM program in criminal rehabilitation.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Alexander CN, Walton KG, Goodman R. Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners I: cross-sectional differences in development and psychopathology.Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):97-126 Significant improvements in the TM group including improved ego development (p<.0005), improved interpersonal relationships (p<.05), reduced psychopathic deviation (p<.01), reduced anxiety (p<.05), reduced aggression (p<.05), reduced tension (p<.05), and reduced introversion (p<.05)These outcomes, identify the TM program as an effective tool for promoting the psychological health and personal maturation necessary for lasting rehabilitation of maximum-security inmates.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Hawkins MA. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in criminal rehabilitation and substance abuse recovery: a review of the research. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):47-66 Incarcerated Offenders show decreased aggression, decreased hostility, decreased in-prison rule infractions and decreased substance abuse as well as increased moral judgment. Significant reduction in the risk factors that underlie substance dependence, particularly reduction in anxiety, depression, neuroticism, and other forms of psychological distress. The TM Program produces a wide range of improvements in psychophysiological well-being as indicated by better psychological health, enhanced autonomic functioning, and improved neuroendocrine balance resulting in significantly lower recidivism rates for parolee practitioners and lower relapse rates for addicts.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Hawkins M, Alexander CN, Travis FT, Camelia CR, Walton KG, Durchholz CF, Rainforth MW. Consciousness-based approach to rehabilitation of inmates in the Netherlands Antilles: psychosocial and cognitive changes. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):205-228 In TM Group, significant decrease in Cognitive Distortion (thinking errors) (p<.05) and significant increase in Intelligence-related Measures (p<.05), with a increase in psychological well-being (p=.082) Practice of TM positively affects recognized correlates of criminal behavior. TM can reduce a risk factor while simultaneously increasing protective factors.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Jones C, Clayborne M, Grant JD, Rutherford G. Attacking crime at its source: consciousness-based education in the prevention of violence and anti-social behavior. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation2003 36(1-4):229-256 Unique effectiveness of the TM Program due to its ability to simultaneously deal with multiple causes of crime and violence. The practice of the TM Technique reduces 23 identified risk factors for crime in four broad categories-physiological, psychological, sociological circumstances and substance abuse.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Affective | TM in Corrections | 2003

Orme-Johnson DW, Moore RM. First prison study using the Transcendental Meditation program: La Tuna Federal Penitentiary. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):89-96 After practicing the TM Technique for 2 months, inmates showed increased stability of the autonomic nervous system, decreased rigidity, decreased obsessive thoughts, decreased compulsive behavior, decreased psychasthenia (including phobias and excessive anxiety), decreased social introversion, decreased SSRR, improved integrated function of the frontal lobes beneficial for rehabilitation.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehab | TM in Corrections | 2003

Rainforth M, Alexander CN, Cavanaugh KL. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on recidivism of former inmates of Folsom Prison: survival analysis of 15-year follow-up data. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 35:181-204 TM parolees had lower re-conviction rates (46.7%) compared to controls (66.7%), a highly significant (p=0.0008) 43.5% reduction

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Preventing Crime thru the Maharishi Effect | 2003

Orme-Johnson DW. Preventing crime though the Maharishi Effect. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation2003 36(1-4):257-281 Criminologists view crime as a multidimensional problem that is best prevented by programs that strengthen informal social control, which is the internalized propensity of the individual to find rewarding behavior patterns within the law. This paper introduces the theory and research on crime prevention through the Maharishi Effect, a powerful mechanism of increasing informal social control by increasing coherence and decreasing stress in the most holistic level of society, its collective consciousness. A review of 15 published studies conducted on city, state, national, and international levels finds strong evidence that crime is reduced and quality of life is improved when 1% of a population practices the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program. This is termed the Maharishi Effect. This review also finds that crime is reduced and quality of life improved when groups the size of the square root of 1% of a population practice the more powerful TM-Sidhi program together in one place. This is called the Extended Maharishi Effect. Theoretically, such a transformation is made possible by the ability of the TM and TM-Sidhi programs to provide direct experience of the unified field of natural law in the simplest form of human awareness, transcendental consciousness, which brings life in accord with natural law. This program is easily implemented and highly cost effective as a primary protective factor against crime.

Social Behavior | Psychological Stress Reduction | Development of Personality | Education Adolescent Behavior | RCT | 2003

Barnes VA, Bauza LB, Treiber FA. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2003 1(1):10  The TM group had lower rates of absenteeism, suspensions and school rule violations than the control group.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections Reduced Recidivism | 2003

Alexander CN, Rainforth MV, Frank PR, Grant JD, Von Stade C. Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners III: reduced recidivism. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):161-180 Inmates who practiced the TM Technique experienced a reduction in recidivism of 33%, which was statistically significant (p = .042). Separate comparisons showed that the TM group also had lower re-incarceration rates than each of the four other programs, with proportionate reductions in recidivism ranging from 29% to 42% (p = .007 to .073). In addition, the TM group compared to all non-meditating subjects had a lower rate of re-incarceration due to new convictions (47% lower, proportionately; p = .045) and a 27% proportionately lower rate of re-incarceration/warrant for arrest (p = .069). The pattern of reduced recidivism for TM program members was maintained in multiple regression analyses, controlling for background and release variables (e.g., parole vs. full discharge, institution of release, drug history). These findings are consistent with the proposition that the reduced psychopathology and accelerated psychological development resulting from the TM program are responsible for reductions in criminal behavior.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Magill DL. Cost savings from teaching the Transcendental Meditation program. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):319-332 Total savings over 5 years for every 1,000 inmates and 100 correctional officers instructed in the TM Program is estimated at $31.6 million

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2002

King MS. Geraldton Alternative Sentencing Regime: applying therapeutic and holistic jurisprudence in the bush. Criminal Law Journal 2002 26:260-271 The Geraldton Alternative Sentencing Regime endeavors to promote offender rehabilitation by taking a holistic, therapeutic, innovative and developmental approach that uses court processes to promote healing, encourages individual responsibility and utilizes a wide range of programs. Results from its first year of operation suggest that court processes used positively impacted on self-esteem and participants’ commitment to rehabilitation, supporting a key claim of therapeutic jurisprudence. Graduates report improved health, stopping or decreasing use of alcohol and illicit drugs, increased motivation to work or study and to stop offending and improved relationships. Participants practicing the self-development technique Transcendental Meditation report reduced substance abuse and improved well-being from the practice.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Walton KG, Levitsky DK. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on neuroendocrine abnormalities associated with aggression and crime. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):67-88 The TM Program reduces stress induced abnormalities in the neuroendocrine systems. Abnormalities in the neuroendocrine systems have been related to impulsivity, aggression and crime.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Leadership | 2003

Schmidt-Wilk J, Alexander CN, Swanson GC. Introduction of the Transcendental Meditation program in a Norwegian top management team. In B Glaser (ed.), Grounded Theory: 1984-1994. Mill Valley, California: Sociology Press, 2003

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2000

King MS. Deterrence, rehabilitation and human nature: the need for a holistic approach to offenders.
Criminal Law Journal 2000 24:335-345
Research indicating stress affects the individual as whole, causing and contributing to criminal activity, underscores the criminal justice systems need for holistic approaches. An alternative approach used by some judges and prisons is offender practice of Transcendental Meditation. It dissolves stress that adversely impacts mind, body and behavior and promotes development of inner resources to enable offenders to handle life challenges constructively. Research has found decreased substance abuse, aggression and recidivism in meditating offenders.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Management | 1999

Heaton D, Harung HS. Vedic Management: enlightening human resources for holistic success. Chinmaya Management Review 1999 3:75-84

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Leadership | 1999

McCollum B. Leadership development and self-development: an empirical study. Career Development International 1999 4(3):149-154 Considering vision, creativity, empowerment, and role modeling, the people practicing the TM technique grew significantly more in leadership behaviors for all variables. The need for effective leadership development programs was never greater than it is today. As companies continue to increase their demands for self-reliance, creativity and cooperation, individuals at all levels of the corporation need to grow in leadership. Maharishi’s Vedic Science and the worldview implied by modern physics both suggest that we may be able to do a more effective job at developing leadership, if we put more attention on developing the leader at the deepest level of the individual. The evidence that such growth of leadership occurs with personal growth at all levels of the organization suggests that we may be able to make everyone a leader.

Social Behavior | Psychological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Time Management | 1998

Harung HS. Improved time management through human development: achieving most with least expenditure of time. Journal of Managerial Psychology 1998 13(5/6):406-428 Time is a primary resource. The common experience is that we are limited by lack of time, and that time is not used in an effective way. The key to improved time management – to have more time available through a longer life and to accomplishing more with less effort – lies in the development of human consciousness to higher stages of happiness, effectiveness, freedom, and comprehension. In the most advanced domain of human unfoldment, higher states of consciousness, we may gain freedom from the binding influence of time so that time ceases to be a factor limiting our achievements in life.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1994

Bleick CR. Case histories: using the Transcendental Meditation program with alcoholics and addicts.
Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(3/4):243-269
Case Histories: Using the Transcendental Meditation Program with Alcoholics and Addicts. A Transcendental Meditation (TM) program for alcoholics and addicts has been operating since autumn of 1986 on the Los Angeles Westside, using the facilities of the CLARE (Community Living for Alcoholics by Rehabilitation and Education) Foundation, an alcohol recovery agency headquartered in Santa Monica. Our inaugural introductory lecture was organized by a CLARE volunteer for a CLARE staff meeting. Thereafter introductory lectures were publicized through posters at CLARE facilities and by word of mouth of meditators at their Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) (see Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc., 1976) or other Twelve Step program meetings, including Narcotics Anonymous (NA) and Cocaine Anonymous (CA).

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1994

Ellis GA, Corum P. Removing the motivator: a holistic solution to substance abuse. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(3/4):271-296 People want love, respect, health, happiness, inner peace, and freedom from stress. If any of these fundamentals is missing from a person’s life, that person becomes vulnerable to many types of disease-including substance abuse. This vulnerability is similar to weakness in the immune system, which leaves the body susceptible to outside influences that can cause myriad health problems. The Transcendental Meditation Program has been shown to ameliorate this vulnerability.

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 6Pg 4013 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse (Alcohol, Drugs and Cigarettes) | Meta | 1994

Alexander CN, Robinson P, Rainforth MV. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: a review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(1/2):13-87 This paper presents a meta-analysis of the Transcendental Meditation program, indicating that individuals who learn this program show a significantly greater reduction in use of illegal drugs, alcohol and cigarettes than do individuals who participate in programs of relaxation, prevention or treatment. The results also showed that abstinence from illegal drugs, alcohol and cigarettes, was maintained or even increased over a long period of time among those who participated in the TM program, in contrast to high relapse rates for standard treatment programs. The meta-analysis also indicated that individuals with substance abuse problems who learned the TM program, showed significantly improved psychological health in comparison to controls. This meta-analysis of 155 studies found that the TM program was significantly more effective in reducing alcohol consumption (d=0.55) than relaxation techniques, counseling, peer pressure and DUI programs, (ds ranged from 0.07 to 0.33). In addition, a statistical meta-analysis summarizing 19 studies on the effects of the TM program found the technique produced substantial and highly significant reductions in alcohol, cigarettes and illegal drug use, with larger effects than other treatments, including standard therapies and other techniques of meditation and relaxation. Over an 18-24 month period, abstinence ranged from 51% to 89% for the TM program compared to 21% for good conventional substance abuse programs. Results of Integrative Meta-Analysis: Significantly Greater Reduction in Use of Illegal Drugs, Alcohol, and Cigarettes than Programs of Relaxation, Prevention, or Treatment; Abstinence from Illegal Drugs, Alcohol, and Cigarettes Maintained or Increased over Long Term (Relapse Prevention); Improved Psychological Health (Reduced Negative Qualities, Reduced Anxiety, Improved Positive Qualities) Among Those with Substance Abuse Problems in Comparison to Controls. Decades of efforts in the treatment of substance abuse have failed to yield a comprehensive treatment strategy that successfully addresses the multidimensional nature of chemical addiction. The current paper proposes that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program provides a holistic, natural, and effective approach that positively impacts a constellation of factors-social, environmental, physiological, psychological, and spiritual-that influence addictive behavior. TM’s effects on smoking, drinking and use of illicit drugs tend to increase over time, suggesting a cumulative effect of regular TM practice. In contrast, it is known that success rates for standard drug treatments fall off substantially over time. For alcohol abuse, TM produced a significantly greater effect than: (1) education programs designed to foster resistance to peer-pressure; (2) prevention education programs designed to enhance self-esteem and knowledge of drug consequences (3) the average of a wide range of DUI treatment programs such as AA and therapeutic probation programs and (4) the average of other relaxation treatment programs (including biofeedback, muscle relaxation, stress-management training, and other forms of meditation). For tobacco smoking, TM produced significantly greater effects than: (1) drug prevention education programs; (2) counseling programs for smoking cessation (3) bibliotherapy; (4) pharmacological treatments for nicotine addiction (including nicotine replacement programs and clonodine therapy); and (5) “unconventional” treatment (including acupuncture, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, etc.). For illicit drugs (cannabis, hallucinogens and narcotics), TM produced significantly greater effects than: (1) preventative education programs combining peer-pressure; and (2) preventative education programs fostering self-esteem and knowledge about drugs.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Organizational Learning | 1994

Gustavsson B, Harung HS. Organizational learning based on transforming collective consciousness.The Learning Organization: an International Journal 1994 1(1):33-40 In this article we have proposed a new concept of organizational learning based on transformation to higher stages of organizational development. We are arguing that this will have significant effects on the total quality of the organization and its actions. The end point of organizational learning would be autonomous and empowered individuals and empowered individuals with high levels of creativity and ethics, and the intrinsic capability and desire of orienting their individual contributions in the direction of the common whole – their organization and society at large. This, we claim, cannot be solved on a traditional level of training, but must be achieved by transcending the minds’ normal operations, infusing wholeness into the individuals’ consciousness, which in turn contributes to the collective consciousness of the organization. The authors are recommending two complementary strategies for this purpose: by training the organization’s members in Transcendental Meditation, the most efficient technique we know for personal and collective development. The second strategy consists of employing a “group for an organization, specialists in TM and TM-Sidhi program that generate a field effect of consciousness, thus creating a transformation, in the organization.The most underdeveloped human resource is consciousness – in organizational terms, the collective consciousness. Develop that, and the rest will follow.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse: Recovery | 1994

O’Connell DF. Possessing the Self: Maharishi Ayur-Veda and the process of recovery from addictive diseases. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(3/4):459-495

Social Behavior | Sociological: Review CPVol6 Pg 4413 | Rehabilitation | Reduction in Substance Abuse | 1994

Orme-Johnson DW. Transcendental Meditation as an epidemiological approach to drug and alcohol abuse: theory, research, and financial impact evaluation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(1/2):119-168 This paper focuses on the contributions of the TM Program to resolving the broad social problems associated with addictions. The author proposes that drug and alcohol abuse are symptoms of a general stress-addiction-crime epidemic in society. The paper then reviews sociological research findings showing how societal disorder experienced as crime, drug abuse, political conflict, and economic instability can be substantially and cost effectively reduced through the group practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi Program. Over 40 studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of The Transcendental Meditation Technique and the TM-Sidhi Program to reduce the societal correlates of drug & alcohol abuse. Such as crime, traffic accidents and unemployment and in some studies to directly reduce alcohol abuse such as crime, traffic accidents and unemployment and in some studies to directly reduce alcohol and tobacco use as part of quality of life indices. Estimates show financial savings for society from the implementation of this technology as $322.7 billion savings for the private sector, $119 billion for the federal government and $45.4 billion for the state government for a total of $487.5 billion

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Prevent Substance Abuse: Juveniles at Risk | 1994

Sharma HM, Dillbeck MC, Dillbeck SL. Implementation of the Transcendental Meditation program and Maharishi Ayur-Veda to prevent alcohol and drug abuse among juveniles at risk. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(3/4):429-457 The purpose of the proposed treatment program is to provide a holistic, natural approach to prevent alcohol and drug abuse among high-risk preadolescent and adolescent children by reducing psychological distress and physiological imbalance, and by enhancing protective resources through an individual and family program. To achieve this goal, juveniles referred for alcohol and drug abuse treatment and also their families participate in a special treatment implementing the Transcendental Meditation program and aspects of a natural system of health care known as Maharishi Ayur -Veda. A large body of scientific research has demonstrated that this program reduces anxiety, depression, and hostility; increases psycho-physiological balance and resistance to stress; promotes more harmonious relations; and most importantly, naturally reduces dependence on alcohol, drugs, and other substances. The key components of the treatment program are the following; twice-daily practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique; twice-daily use of the herbal food supplement Maharishi Amrit Kalash; daily after-school sessions to ensure regularity and maximum benefit; a weekly treatment/class meeting for participants to understand their own experience of developing consciousness in the context of unifying principles that apply equally to their academic studies, to society, and to nature as a whole; and parental and peer participation. Structure and details of the proposed treatment program are outlined in the paper, as well as details of treatment outcome evaluation and procedures to evaluate the successful implementation of the program.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1994

O’Connell DF, Alexander CN (eds). Self recovery: Treating Addictions Using Transcendental Meditation and Maharishi Ayur-Veda. New York: Haworth Press, 1994 “A scholarly trailblazer, a scientific first…Sweeping in its theoretical and applied scope, addressing the abuse of the substances from medical , psychological, sociological, and spiritual perspectives. Those who work daily in the fight against substance abuse, violence, and illness will surely profit from reading this important volume. In my opinion, it represents a valuable new tool in what may be America’s most difficult battle.” Joseph Drew PhD, Chair for Evaluation, Mayor’s Advisory Committee in Drug Abuse, Washington, DC, Professor of Political Science, University of the District of Columbia. “Finally a book that addresses the vital missing dimensions of addictions treatment – discovery of one’s innermost self or being. The holistic and natural approach presented in this volume will revolutionize the way we think about and treat addiction. The dramatic case studies and breakthrough research that it reports offers new hope to patients and professionals alike.” Janet Woodburn 46th President Alcohol and Drug Problems Association of North America “A highly creative and compassionate response to the tragic problem of addictions. In this engaging volume, the author’s offer a sound theoretical framework, rigorous empirical data, and readily applicable methods for resolving this crisis. What is most helpful about this approach is that it does not just focus on getting people to stop harming themselves and others. Rather it has the potential for nurturing all people all people to reach their greatest potential.” Ronald David MD lecturer in Public Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University “An unusual and stimulating book…addresses ways in which TM and Maharishi Ayur-veda can help people afflicted with addictions develop their inner resources to grow as individuals. With the devastating effects on individuals. With the devastating effects of addictions on individuals, families, and society, there is a need for new and different perspectives to address this serious problem. This book is sure to open our minds and show us that there is much hope in using holistic approaches to treat addiction.” Dennis C. Daley, Program Director, Center for Psychiatric and Chemical Dependency Services, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1994

Staggers Jr F, Alexander CN, Walton KG. Importance of reducing stress and strengthening the host in drug detoxification: the potential offered by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(3/4):297-331 Given the critical importance of reducing stress and strengthening the host during drug detoxification, The Transcendental Meditation Technique appears highly promising as a primary detoxification treatment or as a component of multifaceted treatment programs. No changes in beliefs, diet or other aspects of a lifestyle are required. Spontaneous improvements in attitude toward health and in assuming responsibility even after short time of practice.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | RCT | 1994

Taub E, Steiner SS, Weingarten E, Walton KG. Effectiveness of broad spectrum approaches to relapse prevention in severe alcoholism: a long-term, randomised, controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation, EMG biofeedback and electronic neurotherapy. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(1/2):187-220 Over an 18-month period, addition of the TM technique produced over 2 1/2 times the abstinence rate of a standard AA plus counseling program in severe, skid-row type alcoholics. In this controlled trial of relapse prevention effectiveness, severe, chronic, highly transient alcoholics at a residential facility were randomly assigned, following detoxification, to groups who were to receive either TM, EMG biofeedback or electronic neurotherapy along with the routine AA and counseling services of the rehabilitation center. The results from these groups were compared with those who had volunteered for one of the therapies but were subsequently randomly assigned to a group receiving AA and counseling alone. 65% of the Transcendental Meditation Group and 55% of the EMG biofeedback group reported complete abstinence 18 months after leaving the treatment center, compared to 25% for the routine therapy and 28% for the neurotherapy comparison groups. According to the Surgeon General about 33% or one third of all adults completing treatment for alcohol and drug dependence remain abstinent after the first 90 days of follow-up. Three types of “checks” were employed, in field breath tests, dates of incarcerations, and hospitalizations, and the reports of significant others, finding a less than 5% discrepancy between self-report and methods of verification. Subscales of the Profile of Mood States used to assess transient distinct mood states during the institutional phase showed the TM group had significant improvement in five of the six subscales, while the biofeedback group improved significantly on two. The six subscales are tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, vigor-activity and confusion-bewilderment.

Social Behavior | Sociological: Review CP Vol 6 Pg 4387 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1991

Gelderloos P, Walton KG, Orme-Johnson D W, Alexander CN. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in preventing and treating substance misuse: a review. International Journal of the Addictions 1991 26(3):293-325 The authors review research studies demonstrating decreased substance abuse among the general population, among participants in treatment programs and among prison inmates through the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. This article reviews 24 studies on the benefits of Transcendental Meditation (TM) in treating and preventing misuse of chemical substances. Studies cover non-institutionalized users, participants in treatment programs, and prisoners with histories of heavy use. All the studies showed positive effects of the TM program. Some of the survey-type studies were unable to exclude the possibility of self-selection or responder biases. However, longitudinal, random-assignment studies with objective measures also showed positive results. Taken together, these and other studies indicate the program simultaneously addresses several factors underlying substance abuse, providing not only immediate relief from distress, but also long-range improvements in well-being, self-esteem, personal empowerment, and other areas of psychophysiological health.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse: Relapse Prevention | 1991

O’Connell DF. The use of Transcendental Meditation in relapse prevention counseling. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1991 8(1):53-68

Social Behavior | Review Paper CP Vol 5 Pg 3427 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1988

Clements G, Krenner L, Mölk W. The use of the Transcendental Meditation program in the prevention of drug abuse and in the treatment of drug-addicted persons. Bulletin on Narcotics 1988 40(1):51-56This paper reviews the results of over 15 studies indicating that the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program reduces substance abuse.—EDITORS

Social Behavior | Sociological CP Vol 5 Pg 3123 | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 1987

Bleick CR, Abrams AI. The Transcendental Meditation program and criminal recidivism in California.
Journal of Criminal Justice 1987 15(3):211-230
Practice of TM during incarceration reduces recidivism. TM parolees had lower re-conviction rates (46.7%) compared to statewide paroles at 6 months (p<.004), 1 year, (p<.004), 2 years (p<.002) and 30-40% reduced recidivism compared to controls at 1 year (p=.0007), 3 years(p=.007). and 5 years (p=.02). 59 percent of the mediators who were surveyed in prison and not yet released were still meditating.

Social Behavior | Review Paper CD Vol 5Pg 3415 | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 1987

Dillbeck MC, Abrams AI. The application of the Transcendental Meditation program to corrections.
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 1987 11(1):111-132
Research projects in eight correctional settings are narratively and quantitatively reviewed indicating The TM program leads to positive changes in health, personality development, behavior and reduced recidivism. This paper reviews the research results on the application of the Transcendental Meditation program in corrections, including improved mental health and reduced hostility among inmates, and reduced recidivism upon release. The authors propose the implementation of the Transcendental Meditation program in correctional settings on a large scale, in order to promote effective rehabilitation and thereby reduce the substantial financial and human costs of incarceration in society.

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 3Pg 2158 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1983

Aron A, Aron EN. The pattern of reduction of drug and alcohol use among Transcendental Meditation participants. Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 1983 2(1):28-33 Reduced use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana was found to result from the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. The pattern seen was one of a progressive, internally-motivated decline of drug usage as a natural consequence of positive developments in the individual’s life.—EDITORS Recent studies suggest that substance abuse gradually declines and usage usually ceases after about 2 years of Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice, although the technique is seldom learned for this purpose. Many reported finding the substances less enjoyable or a growing sensitivity to their adverse physiological effects.

Social Behavior | Psychological CPVol4 Pg2474 | Affective | Marital Satisfaction & Adjustment | 1982

Aron EN, Aron A. Transcendental Meditation and marital adjustment. Psychological Reports 1982 51(7):887-890 This study found increase marital satisfaction and adjustment in couples who practice the TM technique. Married women who had learned the Transcendental Meditation technique showed greater marital satisfaction than matched non-meditating controls. This result was significantly greater in women who were regular in their practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Social Behavior | Psychological | Development of Personality | Stronger Self-Identity | 1982

Turnbull M, Norris H. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on self-identity indices and personality.
British Journal of Psychology 1982 73:57-69
The practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique was found to result in a stronger self-identity.

Social Behavior | Review Paper CPVol4 Pg 2904 | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 1981

Orme-Johnson, DW. Prison rehabilitation and crime prevention through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. In LH Hippchen (ed.), Holistic Approaches to Offender Rehabilitation (Chapter 19). Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas Press, 1981 A summary of research on the Transcendental Meditation program conducted in prisons and presents an overview of the physiological, psychological, and sociological findings in terms of the growth of stability and adaptability. In addition the practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program is shown to produce a coherent influence throughout collective consciousness, thereby preventing crime and promoting positive trends in society.

Social Behavior | Review Paper CPVol4 Pg 2894 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1980

Aron A, Aron EN. The Transcendental Meditation program’s effect on addictive behavior. Addictive Behaviors 1980 5(1):3-12 This paper reviews research showing that the Transcendental Meditation program is effective in counteracting a wide variety of addictive behaviors. The authors locate the basis of this effect in the comprehensive physiological, psychological, and social benefits which have been found to result from Transcendental Meditation.—EDITORS The last section considers practical issues in implementing TM programs in addiction treatment and preventive settings.

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 3Pg 2104 | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 1979

Abrams AI. Transcendental Meditation and rehabilitation at Folsom Prison: response to a critique.
Criminal Justice and Behavior 1979 6(1):13-21
The benefits of Transcendental Meditation reported in the previous paper were found not to be the result of selection bias or a tendency of subjects to make socially desirable, untrue responses. The article responds to the challenge posed that findings by Abrams and Siegel on the TM program at Folsom State Prison resulted from Rosenthal experimental bias effects, and that the data was parsimoniously interpreted by the authors. The authors noted that Rosenthal effects are not so pervasive that in every possible instance promising treatments should be discounted. Moreover, EPI Lie Scale data indicate that, if anything, the treatment reduced the inmates’ modest tendency to make socially desirable, untrue responses. No consistent relations between levels of Lie Scale and criterion variables were found in a meta-analysis of the data. In conclusion, the potential cost-effectiveness of the program, which was questioned by the critic, was supported by an analysis of preliminary recidivism rates of discharged participants.

Social Behavior | Psychological CP Vol 3 Pg 2038 | Development of Personality | Improved Perception of Others | 1979

Holeman R, Seiler G. Effects of sensitivity training and Transcendental Meditation on perception of others. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1979 49(5):270 The Transcendental Meditation technique was found to improve perception of others.

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 3Pg 2093 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Insomnia TM in Corrections | 1978

Abrams AI, Siegel LM. The Transcendental Meditation program and rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison: a cross-validation study. Criminal Justice and Behavior 1978 5(1):3-20 The Transcendental Meditation program in a maximum security prison was studied via cross-validation design. Significant differences were found between the Transcendental Meditation and control groups across all the inventories, indicating reduction in anxiety, neuroticism, hostility, insomnia, fewer behavior infractions, decreased resentment; decreased negativism decreased irritability; improved sleep patterns (decreased time to fall asleep, decreased awakenings per night, improved quality of sleep).

Social Behavior | Sociological CP Vol 3Pg 2080 | Rehabilitation | Decreased Use of Drugs, Increased Self-Reliance, Creativity | 1978

Geisler M. Therapeutische Wirkungen der Transzendentalen Meditation auf Drogenkonsumenten.Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie 1978 7(4):235-255 In a two year longitudinal study regular practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique regular practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique showed a rapid and lasting decrease in the consumption of all kinds of drugs, improvements in personality and decreased neurotic tendencies. Continued practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique was found to result in progressive improvement of psycho-social health as shown by increased self-reliance and creativity.

Social Behavior | Psychological CP Vol 3 Pg 2011 | Development of Personality | Increased Positivity toward Self and Others in Students | 1978

Hanley CP, Spates JL. Transcendental Meditation and social psychological attitudes. Journal of Psychology 1978 99:121-127 Students practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique were found to have a more positive conception of human nature, a more positive self-image, higher levels of tolerance, greater sociability, and fewer feelings of social inadequacy than general student counterparts. The benefits were seen to be more marked in long-term meditators than in short-term meditators.

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 2 Pg1161 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1977

Monahan R. Secondary prevention of drug dependency through the Transcendental Meditation program in metropolitan Philadelphia. International Journal of the Addictions 1977 12(6):729-754Marked reductions in the use of prescribed tranquilizers, tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and in total number of prescriptions received, were found to result from participation in the Transcendental Meditation program. Using mailed questionnaires, the Transcendental Meditation program was investigated as an approach to the secondary prevention of substance dependence. Significant differences were found between a random sample of meditators and matched control subjects in usage levels and percentage of users for almost all legal and illegal drugs. Meditators had used more prescribed psychoactive medications before learning meditation, but usage levels returned to normal soon after starting. Former users of alcohol, cigarettes, or illegal drugs achieved remarkable abstinence records. For most substances the amount of decrease was positively correlated with degree of participation in the program and the length of time meditating.

Social Behavior | Review CPVol 2 Pg1381 | Rehabilitation | Chronic Disorders: Reduced Substance Abuse | 1977

Stutz E. Transzendentale Meditation in der Behandlung Drogenabhängiger. Das öffentliche Gesundheilswesen 1977 39:759-766 The Transcendental Meditation program is found to be effective in drug rehabilitation. This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in improving quality of life and mental health in patients with chronic disorders.

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 1 Pg 520 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1975

Shafii M, Lavely RA, Jaffe RD. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry 1975 132(9):942-945 People practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique showed significant decreases in alcohol consumption as compared with matched controls. The authors surveyed the frequency of alcohol use in individuals identified as practitioners of Transcendental Meditation (N —126) and a matched control group (N — 90). No control subjects reported discontinuation of beer and wine use; 40 percent of subjects who had meditated for more than two years reported discontinuation within the first six months. After 25-39 months of meditation, this figure increased to 60 percent. In addition, 54 percent of this group, versus one percent of the control group, had stopped drinking hard liquor. The authors suggest that meditation could be an effective preventive tool in the area of alcohol abuse.

Social Behavior | Sociological CP Vol 1 Pg 625 | Productivity and Quality of Life | Improved Job Performance; Job Satisfaction & Relationships | 1974

Frew DR. Transcendental Meditation and productivity. Academy of Management Journal 1974 17:362-368 Job performance, job satisfaction, job stability, and interpersonal relationships with co-workers and supervisors were all seen to improve in people practicing the TM program.

Social Behavior | Review CP Vol 2 Pg 1335 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1974

Marcus JB. Transcendental Meditation: a new method of reducing drug abuse. Drug Forum 1974 3(2):113-136 Research demonstrates that Transcendental Meditation is effective in the treatment and prevention of drug abuse.—EDITORS

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 1 Pg 515 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1974

Shafii M, Lavely RA, Jaffe RD. Meditation and marijuana. American Journal of Psychiatry 1974 131(1):60-63 Marijuana use declined in people practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique; the amount of decline was correlated with the number of months they had been practicing the technique. Using a questionnaire survey, the authors sought to discover the effect of meditation on their subjects’ use of marijuana. While only 15 percent of a non-meditating control group had decreased or stopped their use of marijuana during the preceding three months, among the meditators proportions ranging from half to three-quarters (depending on the length of time since their initiation) had decreased or stopped their use during the first three months after initiation into meditation. The authors found that the longer a person had practiced meditation, the more likely it was that he had decreased or stopped his use of marijuana.

Now that you’ve discovered the research, find out how to learn TM