Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation program

This research list compiles summaries, abstracts, and results for most of the 417 original studies and reviews of research published in independent peer-reviewed journals or other edited scientific publications from 1970 to the present.


Health
Health | Psychological | Reduce stress in Female Inmates | 2017

Transcendental Meditation and reduced trauma symptoms in female inmates: A randomized controlled study

Nidich S, Seng A, Compton B, O’Connor T, Salerno JW, Nidich R. Transcendental Meditation and reduced trauma symptoms in female inmates: A randomized controlled study. Perm J 2017; 21:16008 (DOI: https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/16-008.)

Context: Compared with the general population, trauma experiences are higher among incarcerated women.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on trauma symptoms in female offenders.

Design: Twenty-two inmates at the Coffee Creek Correctional Facility in Wilsonville, OR, with at least 4 months left of incarceration were enrolled in this randomized controlled pilot study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the TM group (n = 11) or a wait-list control group (n = 11).

Main Outcome Measures: Subjects were measured at baseline and 4-month posttest using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C; primary outcome) with intrusive thoughts, avoidance, and hyperarousal subscales (secondary outcomes). Twenty of the subjects (10 in each group) took part in their treatment assignment and completed posttesting.

Results: Significant reductions were found on total trauma (p < 0.036), intrusive thoughts (p < 0.026), and hyperarousal (p < 0.043) on the PCL-C. Effect sizes ranged from 0.65 to 0.99 for all variables. Eighty-one percent of the TM subjects were compliant with their program.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate feasibility of the TM program in a female prison population and suggest that TM may be an effective tool for decreasing trauma symptoms. Future large-scale research is warranted.

Health | Psychological | Reduce stress in Male Inmates | 2016

Reduced trauma symptoms and perceived stress in male prison inmates through the Transcendental Meditation program: A randomized controlled trial

Nidich S, O’Connor T, Rutledge T, et al. Reduced trauma symptoms and perceived stress in male prison inmates through the Transcendental Meditation program: A randomized controlled trial. Perm J 2016 Fall;20(4):16-007 (DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.7812/TPP/16-007.)

Context: Trauma events are four times more prevalent in inmates than in the general public and are associated with increased recidivism and other mental and physical health issues.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on trauma symptoms in male inmates.

Design: One hundred eighty-one inmates with a moderate- to high-risk criminal profile were randomly assigned to either the TM program or to a usual care control group.

Main Outcome Measures: The Trauma Symptom Checklist and the Perceived Stress Scale were administered at baseline and four-month posttest.

Results: Significant reductions in total trauma symptoms, anxiety, depression, dissociation, and sleep disturbance subscales, and perceived stress in the TM group were found compared with controls (all p values < 0.001). The high-trauma subgroup analysis further showed a higher magnitude of effects in the TM group compared with controls on all outcomes, with Cohen effect sizes ranging from 0.67 to 0.89.

Conclusion: Results are consistent with those of prior studies of the TM program in other populations and its effects on trauma symptoms and perceived stress.

Health | Physiological | Blood Flow Patterns | 2018

fMRI during Transcendental Meditation practice

Michelle C. Mahone, Fred Travis, Richard Gevirtz, David Hubbard. fMRI during Transcendental Meditation practice. Brain and Cognition 123 (2018) 30–33. This study used a within group design to investigate blood flow patterns (fMRI) in 16 long-term practitioners of Transcendental Meditation (mean practice: 34.3years with each having over 36,000h of meditation practice). During Transcendental Meditation practice, blood flow patterns were significantly higher in executive and attention areas (anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices) and significantly lower in arousal areas (pons and cerebellum). This pattern supports the understanding that Transcendental Meditation practice requires minimal effort. During Transcendental Meditation, the attentional system was active (heightened blood flow in anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices) in an automatic manner—decreased blood flow in the pons and cerebellum. This pattern of heightened blood flow in attentional areas and decreased blood flow in arousal areas has not been reported during other meditation practices. Future research should investigate blood flow patterns in different meditation practices in the same study.

Health | Psychological | PTSD | 2018

Transcendental Meditation for Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Seung Suk Kang, Christopher R. Erbes, Greg J. Lamberty, Paul Thuras, and Scott R. Sponheim, Melissa A. Polusny, Amy C. Moran, Abraham C. Van Voorhis, Kelvin O. Lim. Transcendental Meditation for Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. 2018 American Psychological Association 2018, Vol. 0, No. 999. Transcendental Meditation (TM) is a mental technique using a mantra to facilitate meditation. TM has a potential for treating symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but its clinical efficacy remains to be clarified. This pilot study evaluated the acceptability, preliminary effectiveness, and neurophysiology of TM for veterans with PTSD. Method: Twenty-nine veterans (20.7% female) were recruited from a major medical center and enrolled in the study. TM instruction was provided by certified TM teachers from the Maharishi Foundation and consisted of 8 weeks of individual and group-based meditation instruction and practice. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, during treatment, posttreatment, and at 2-month follow-up, and included clinical interviews, self-report questionnaires, and electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during resting and meditation states. Results: From baseline to posttreatment, participants reported reductions in PTSD symptoms, experiential avoidance, and depressive and somatic symptoms, as well as increases on measures of mindfulness and quality of life. Gains were either maintained or continued to improve through the 2-month follow-up. Compared to baseline, EEG spectral power increased in low-frequency bands (1–7 Hz) at posttreatment and follow-up and only during meditation states suggesting TM-specific changes in brain state associated with the intervention. Conclusions: TM appears to be an acceptable and effective treatment for veterans with PTSD that warrants further study regarding specific outcomes and beneficial changes in brain function

Health | Psychological | Impact on Symptoms of PTSD | 2017

The Transcendental Meditation Program’s Impact on the Symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder of Veterans: An Uncontrolled Pilot Study

Robert E. Herron, Ph.D., MBA; COL Brian Rees, M.D., MPH, MC, USAR (Ret.). The Transcendental Meditation Program’s Impact on the Symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder of Veterans: An Uncontrolled Pilot Study. MILITARY MEDICINE, Vol. 00, 0/0 2017.Background: Current treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are only partially effective. This study evaluated whether an extensively researched stress reduction method, the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique, can reduce the PTSD symptoms of veterans. Previous research suggested that TM practice can decrease veterans’ PTSD symptoms. Methods: A one-group pretest–posttest design was used to evaluate the impact of TM practice on reducing PTSD symptoms. A convenience sample of 89 veterans completed PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-5) questionnaires. Among those, 46 scored above 33, the threshold for provisional diagnosis of PTSD, and were included in this evaluation. The PCL-5 measured PTSD symptoms at baseline and 30 and 90 d after intervention. Regularity of TM practice was recorded. Paired sample t-tests were used to assess within-group changes from baseline to post-intervention periods. Analysis of variance was used to compare full-dose (two 20-min TM sessions per day) and half-dose (one 20-min TM session per day) groups. Findings: After 1 mo of TM practice, all 46 veterans responded; their PCL-5 average decreased from 51.52 in the pre-intervention period to a post-intervention mean of 23.43, a decline of 28.09 points (−54.5%); standard deviation: 14.57; confidence interval: 23.76–32.41; and effect size: −1.93; p < 0.0001. The median PTSD scores declined from 52.5 to 22.5, a decrease of 30 points (−57%), while 40 veterans (87%) had clinically significant declines (>10 points) in PTSD symptoms, and 37 (80%) dropped below the clinical level (<33). At the 90 d posttest, 31 of the 46 responded and three more dropped below the 33 threshold. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed clinically and statistically significant effects. A dose–response effect suggested a causal relationship. The full-dose group exhibited larger mean declines in PTSD symptoms than the half-dose group. Averages of the 46 veterans’ responses to 20 PCL-5 questions exhibited significant (p < 0.0001) declines from the pre-intervention period to the 30-d post-intervention assessment. Discussion: Results indicated that TM practice reduced PTSD symptoms without re-experiencing trauma. Because of the magnitude of these results and dose–response effect, regression to the mean, spontaneous remission of symptoms, and placebo effects are unlikely explanations for the results. Major limitations were absence of random assignment and lack of a control group. Participants chose to start and continue TM practice and to complete PCL-5 questionnaires. Those who self-selected to enter this study may not be representative of all veterans who have PTSD. Those who did not complete follow-up questionnaires at 90 d may or may not have had the same results as those who responded. The design and sampling method affect the generalizability of the results to wider populations. When taking into account these results and all previous research on the TM technique in reducing psychological and physiological stress, the convergence of evidence suggests that TM practice may offer a promising adjunct or alternative method for treating PTSD. Because of the widely recognized need to identify effective new approaches for treating PTSD, randomized research with control groups is warranted to further investigate the effectiveness of TM practice as a treatment for PTSD.

Health | Physiological + Psychological | Effect on self-efficacy, perceived stress, and quality of life | 2018

The effect of transcendental meditation on self-efficacy, perceived stress, and quality of life in mothers in Uganda

Leslee Goldstein, Sanford I. Nidich, Rachel Goodman & David Goodman (2018): The effect of transcendental meditation on self-efficacy, perceived stress, and quality of life in mothers in Uganda, Health Care for Women International (DOI: 10.1080/07399332.2018.1445254). Vulnerable women living in poverty in Uganda, who are primarily single, illiterate mothers, face high levels of physical and psychological stress. Our study assessed the impact of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique on self-efficacy, perceived stress, and mental and physical quality of life of these women. This single-blind controlled study involved 81 women who were assigned to either practice of the Transcendental Meditation program (n D 42) or wait-list (delayed start) control group (n D 39). Participants learned the Transcendental Meditation program over five sessions, then practiced at home for 20 minutes twice a day, and attended twice monthly group meetings over a 3-month period. The primary outcome measure was self-efficacy using the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). Perceived stress using Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and physical and mental quality of life using subscales of the Medical Outcomes Survey (MOS, HIV version) were secondary outcome measures. Significant improvements were shown in self-efficacy (p < .001), perceived stress (p < .010), and mental and physical well-being (p < .010). Compliance with TM home practice was >88%. This is the first controlled study to demonstrate the effect of TM in the daily lives of mothers living in impoverished conditions. Further questionnaires were administered to participants at 8 months and at 36 months with questions about changes they may have experienced in their daily life since starting TM. “Yes,”“No” selfreported answers suggested that the women experienced improved health, improved relationships with others, and increased employment rates. These findings taken as a whole have important implications for developing self-efficacy, improving mental and physical quality of life, and reducing stress in the lives of these vulnerable women.

Health | Physiological | Preventive Medicine | 2017

Mind-body training for at-risk populations: Preventive medicine at its best

Elder C. Mind-body training for at-risk populations: Preventive medicine at its best. Perm J 2017(21:16-174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/16-174).Kaiser Permanente, and like-minded institutions, strongly emphasize health promotion and disease prevention in caring for our patients. We screen our population for breast cancer in an effort to achieve early detection, so appropriate curative treatment can be offered in a timely way. We promote vaccination programs to prevent outbreaks of infectious diseases. We prescribe statins for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, expending considerable energy and resources to maximize levels of appropriate prescribing on a population-based level to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events. We actively and systematically screen for alcohol abuse at routine primary care visits, identifying patients who might not otherwise seek intervention. These, and innumerable other such efforts, share the worthy goal of preventing the occurrence, or complications, of serious diseases.

Health | Physiological + Psychological | Rehabilitation | Reductions in Infant Mortality and Drug-Related Death | 2017

Group Practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program and Reductions in Infant Mortality and Drug-Related Death: A Quasi-Experimental Analysis

Michael C. Dillbeck and Kenneth L. Cavanaugh. Group Practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program and Reductions in Infant Mortality and Drug-Related Death: A Quasi-Experimental Analysis. SAGE Open January-March 2017: 1 –15. These two studies tested the prediction that the group practice of a procedure for the development of consciousness, the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program, by a sufficiently large group of individuals would be sufficient to reduce collective stress in the larger population, reflected in two stress-related health indicators, infant mortality rate and drug related fatality rate. Based on theoretical prediction and prior research, from January 2007 through 2010 (intervention period), this effect should have been measurable. Change in the rates of these two indicators during the intervention period were estimated from 2002 through 2010 data using a broken-trend (or segmented trend) intervention model with time series regression methods. Significant changes in trend for both the infant mortality rate and drug-related fatality rate were evident at the predicted time and in the predicted direction, controlling for preintervention trends, seasonality, and autocorrelation. The changes in trend were both statistically and practically significant, indicating an average annual decline of 3.12% in infant mortality rate and 7.61% in drug-related fatality rate. Diagnostic tests are satisfactory and indicate that it is unlikely that the statistical results are attributable to spurious regression. The mechanism for these collective effects is discussed in view of possible alternative hypotheses.

Health | Physiological | Reduce Blood pressure| 2015

Investigating the effect of transcendental meditation on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 12 February 2015(doi:10.1038/jhh.2015.6) Some evidence from previous randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews has demonstrated a positive association between hypertension and transcendental meditation (TM). However, other trials and reviews showed the effect of TM on blood pressure (BP) was unclear but did not use subgroup analysis to rigorously investigate this relationship. The American Heart Association has stated that TM is potentially beneficial but did not give a standard indication. The present study explored several subgroup analyses in systematic reviews to investigate the effect of TM on BP. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Chinese BioMedical Literature Database were searched through August 2014. Randomized controlled trials of TM as a primary intervention for BP were included. Two reviewers independently used the Cochrane Collaboration’s quality assessment tool to assess each study’s quality. Twelve studies with 996 participants indicated an approximate reduction of systolic and diastolic BP of −4.26mmHg (95% CI=−6.06, −2.23) and −2.33mmHg (95% CI=−3.70, −0.97), respectively, in TM groups compared with control groups. Results from subgroup analysis suggested that TM had a greater effect on systolic BP among older participants, those with higher initial BP levels, and women, respectively. In terms of diastolic BP, it appears that TM might be more efficient in a short-term intervention and with individuals experiencing higher BP levels. However, some biases may have influenced the results, primarily a lack of information about study design and methods of BP measurement in primary studies.

Health | Physiological + Psychological: | Rehabilitation | PTSD | 2016

Vernon A. Barnes , PhD* ; Andrea Monto, LMSW†; Jennifer J. Williams , LCSW‡; John L. Rigg , MD Impact of Transcendental Meditation on Psychotropic Medication Use Among Active Duty Military Service Members With Anxiety and PTSD Military Medicine Vol. 181, Issue 1The purpose of the study was to determine whether the regular practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM) decreased the need for psychotropic medications required for anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) management and increased psychological wellbeing. The sample included 74 military Service Members with documented PTSD or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (ADNOS), 37 that practiced TM and 37 that did not. At 1 month, 83.7% of the TM group stabilized, decreased, or ceased medications and 10.8% increased medication dosage; compared with 59.4% of controls that showed stabilizations, decreases, or cessations; and 40.5% that increased medications (p < 0.03). A similar pattern was observed after 2 (p < 0.27), 3 (p < 0.002), and 6 months (p < 0.34). Notably, there was a 20.5% difference between groups in severity of psychological symptoms after 6 months, that is, the control group experienced an increase in symptom severity compared with the group practicing TM. These findings provide insight into the benefits of TM as a viable treatment modality in military treatment facilities for reducing PTSD and ADNOS psychological symptoms and associated medication use.

Health | Physiological + Psychological: | Stress Reduction in Caregivers | 2015

Sanford Nidich, Randi J Nidich, John Salerno, Brooke Hadfield and Charles Elder Stress Reduction with the Transcendental Meditation program in Caregivers: A Pilot Study International Archives of Nursing and Health Care Vol 1, Issue 2

Objective: To determine feasibility and potential effects of the Transcendental Meditation® (TM) technique on caregivers’ mental health and spiritual well-being.

Methods: Twenty-three caregivers learned the TM program over five sessions and attended twice monthly group meetings over a two month period. Participants practiced at home for twenty minutes twice a day. Outcomes included perceived stress using Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, Total Mood Disturbance using the profile of Mood States (POMS), spiritual well-being using the FACIT scale, and levels of stress and perceived physical health using the Caregiver Self-Assessment Questionnaire.

Results: Significant improvements were shown in perceived stress, spiritual well-being, Total Mood Disturbance, and POMS subscales (p values < .001) over the two-month study. Participants rated their current level of stress significantly lower at posttest compared to baseline (p < .001) and perceived physical health as significantly improved (p < .019). Compliance with TM home practice was > 90%. Further qualitative evaluation of participants suggested improvements in energy level, feeling of calmness, and resilience, and reduced anxiety and other psychosocial stress.

Discussion: This pilot study showed decreases in perceived stress, mood disturbance, including anxiety, depression, anger, confusion and fatigue, and an increase in spiritual well-being (faith in the future and purposefulness). These findings suggest that further research is warranted on the role of the TM technique in managing the mental and physical health of family and professional caregivers.

Health | Physiological | Reduced Trait Anxiety | 2013

Orme-Johnson, D., Barnes, V., Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (2013;19(10):1-12)The Transcendental Meditation® technique (TM) has a large effect on reducing trait anxiety for people with high anxiety. Trait anxiety is a measure of how anxious a person usually is, as opposed to state anxiety, which refers to how anxious we are at the moment. A meta-analysis is an objective means to draw conclusions from all the research in a field. This meta-analysis covered 16 randomized-controlled trials, the gold standard in medical research, and included 1295 subjects from various walks of life, age groups, and life situations. TM was compared with various control groups, including treatment-as-usual, individual and group psychotherapy, and various relaxation techniques. Studies on high stress groups, such as veterans suffering from PTSD and prison inmates, showed dramatic reductions in anxiety from TM practice, whereas studies of groups with only moderately elevated anxiety levels, such as normal adults and college students, showed more modest changes.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 1981

Agarwal BL, Kharbanda A. Effect of transcendental meditation on mild and moderate hypertension.Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 1981 29:591-596 Reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found in mild and moderately hypertensive subjects after six months of practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. It is suggested that Transcendental Meditation may be used as the primary treatment in such cases. Reduction of high blood pressure is of great importance for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Sixteen patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension undertook a carefully supervised program of Transcendental Meditation (TM). After six months, there were falls in mean systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures of 16.75, 9.81, and 12.12 respectively which were highly significant. Ten (62.5%) of the 16 patients were considered to have responded satisfactorily as they showed a fall of mean arterial pressure by 15 mmHg or more, or a diastolic blood pressure of less than 90 mmHg. Results are comparable to treatment with drugs. Most of the reduction in pressure took place in the first two months. A feeling of well-being was reported by nearly all the subjects.

Health | Physiological | Health: Longevity | Aging; Reduced Blood Pressure, Improved Cognitive Functioning and Increased Longevity | RCT | 1989

Alexander CN, Langer EJ, Newman RI, Chandler HM, Davies JL. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: an experimental study with the elderly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1989 57(6):950-964 A meticulously controlled randomized study at Harvard University found that elderly individuals who learned the Transcendental Meditation technique showed significantly greater improvements in a variety of age-related aspects of physical and mental health and well-being than subjects taught other techniques or a no-treatment control group. In particular, those who learned a relaxation procedure that attempted to imitate Transcendental Meditation technique showed no improvement on any measure. A clear majority of subjects practicing the TM technique rated their technique as particularly useful and easy to practice in contrast to lower rates for the other techniques. Most strikingly, after three years, all those who had learned the TM technique were still living in contrast to significantly lower survival rates for the other three groups and for the remaining inhabitants of the other institutions where the study was conducted. Benefits for the Elderly Demonstrating Reversal of Aging: Increased Longevity (Higher Survival Rate); Reduction of Systolic Blood Pressure to More Ideal Levels; Improved Mental Health (Improvements on Nurses Mental Health Ratings); Increased Cognitive Flexibility (Verbal Task); Increased Learning Ability (Paired Associate Learning Task); Improvements in Self-Reported Measures of Behavioral Flexibility and Aging (Greater Ability to Cope with Inconvenience, Reduced Feelings of Being Old); Greater Sense of Well-Being (Feeling Better and More Relaxed After Transcendental Meditation; Feeling Better During Transcendental Meditation; High Interest in Transcendental Meditation; and High Ratings of the Value of Transcendental Meditation.)

Health | Physiological Review | Cardiovascular Health Rehabilitation Affective, Development of Personality | Comparing Techniques Reviews 4 Meta-Analyses | 1994

Alexander CN, Robinson P, Orme-Johnson DW, Schneider RH, Walton KG. The effects of Transcendental Meditation compared to other methods of relaxation in reducing risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Homeostasis 1994 352:243-264 This paper reviews four meta-analyses that show the superiority of the Transcendental Meditation program compared to other techniques in producing deep rest, decreasing anxiety, increasing self-actualization, and decreasing substance abuse (cigarettes, drugs, alcohol). It also reviews individual well controlled studies on the beneficial effects of this technique on hypertension, mortality, medical care, and medical expenses, and discusses physiological mechanisms for these effects.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension and Aging/Gender | RCT | 1996

Alexander CN, Schneider RH, Staggers F, Sheppard W, Clayborne BM, Rainforth MV, Salerno J, Kondwani K, Smith S, Walton K, Egan B. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans: II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension 1996 28(2):228-237 More Ideal Levels of Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Subjects who Learned the Transcendental Meditation Programme: Reduction of HIgh Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Found for both Men and Women, and both High and Low Psychosocial Stress Subjects: Reduction of High Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Irrespective of Score on Five other Measures of Risk for High Blood Pressure, Obesity, Alcohol Use, Physical Inactivity, Dietary Sodium-Potassium Intake and Index of all Risk Factors Combined.

Health | Physiological | Efficiency & Stability | Respiratory Changes | 1970

Allison J. Respiratory changes during Transcendental Meditation. Lancet 1970 7651:833 Breath rate decreased during the practice of the TM technique, indicating a more relaxed and rested state.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | Meta | 2008

Anderson JW, Liu C, Kryscio RJ. Blood pressure response to Transcendental Meditation: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Hypertension 2008 21(3):310-316 According to a definitive new meta-analysis of previous studies on stress reduction programs and high blood pressure, the Transcendental Meditation technique was found to produce a statistically significant reduction in high blood pressure—an effect not found with other forms of relaxation, meditation, biofeedback or stress management. Blood pressure dropped significantly in all groups practicing TM compared to the controls. The reduction in blood pressure was an average of 5 points on the systolic and 3 points on the diastolic readings. These results are not only statistically significant, they are clinically significant. These results could be expected to result in 15 – 20% less cardiovascular disease. Jim Anderson and colleagues from the University of Kentucky pooled data from nine published well controlled studies that involved a total of 711 people. Subjects ranged in age from adolescents (15-18 years) to seniors (M age 81.3 + or – 9.8 years) and included normotensive, prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals.

Health | Physiological | Motor & Perceptual | Reaction Time | 1974

Appelle S, Oswald LE. Simple reaction time as a function of alertness and prior mental activity.
Perceptual and Motor Skills 1974 38(3):1263-1268
Subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique were found to have faster reactions before and after a session of the technique, compared with other subjects before and after either rest or a simple task.

Health | Physiological | EEG | TC | 2004

Arenander A, Travis FT. Brain patterns of Self-awareness. In B Beitman, J Nair (eds), Self-Awareness Deficits. New York: WW Norton, 2004 This chapter has introduced the concept of a foundational state of self- awareness, which is posited to be both independent and the source of conscious experiences. Research suggests that high levels of broadband frontal EEG coherence are associated with this ground state of self-awareness. This basic awareness may act as an empty canvas upon which we organize, direct, and experience the ever-changing circumstances of our lives. Intact, highly synchronous prefrontal circuits appear to be critical to the direct experience of this ground state of awareness, as well as the transition from an episodic, meditation-dependent experience of this condition to its gradual development as a coexisting continuum across waking, dreaming, and sleeping states of consciousness. Our review supports the existence of at least two primary modes of self-awareness, one with and one without content, as well as the possibility of a third, integrated mode, in which knower and known, self and objects coexist. Future research should continue to characterize both this putative ground of self-awareness and the consequences of its repeated and systematic experience on brain plasticity and function. Once such a research-based foundation is established, then the various, diverse expressions of self-awareness can be better understood as progressive layers of processing and interaction between the knower (self-awareness) and the known (the inner and outer environment). In turn, we should be in a better position to understand and effectively treat the variety of dysfunctional modes of self-awareness.

Health | Physiological | EEG | TC | 1984

Badawi K, Wallace RK, Orme-Johnson D, Rouzeré A-M. Electrophysiologic characteristics of respiratory suspension periods occurring during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 1984 46(3):267-276 The combination of inner alertness, respiratory suspension, and high EEG coherence was found to characterize the state of transcendental consciousness experienced during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Left Ventricular Mass | RCT | 2012

Barnes VA, Kapuku GK, Treiber FA. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on left ventricular mass in African American adolescents. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 (in press)  Increased left ventricular mass (LVM) has long been known to increase the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, stroke, cardiac arrhythmias, and sudden death. An early sign of ventricular remodeling is increased left ventricular mass (LVM) which over time may lead to left ventricular hypertrophy, the strongest predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, other than advancing age. The successful implementation of the intervention points to the potential of school-based stress reduction programs as a means of decreasing likelihood of early onset of LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) in high-risk youth. These findings indicate that among a group of prehypertensive African American adolescents, 4 months of TM compared to heath education resulted in a significant decrease in LVMI, and these changes were maintained at 4-month follow-up. Methods. 62 (30 TM; 32 CTL) African American adolescents (age 16.2 ± 1.3 years) with high normal systolic BP were randomly assigned to either 4-month Transcendental Meditation (TM) or health education control groups. The echocardiographic-derived measure of LVM index (LVMI = LVM/ht2.7) was measured before and after the 4-month TM study and at 4-month followup. 2D-guided M-mode echocardiography using a Hewlett Packard 5500 echosonograph was used to determine LVMI. Results. The TM group exhibited a greater decrease in LVMI at 4-month followup compared to the CTL group (−2.6 versus +0.3gm/ht2.7, P < 0.04). The TM group exhibited a lesser increase in BMI at 4-month follow-up compared to the CTL group (0.2 ± 1.6 versus 1.1 ± 1.4, P < 0.03).

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension in Youth & Adults | 2006

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Clinical and pre-clinical applications of the Transcendental Meditation program in the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension and cardiovascular disease in youth and adults. Current Hypertension Reviews 2006 2(3):207-218 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 2008

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. El impacto de la reduccion del estres en el hypertension esencial y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Revista Internacional De Ciencias Del Deporte (International Journal of Sports Science) 2008 4(12):1-30 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Research Review Update | 2012

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in adolescents and adults through the Transcendental Meditation Program®: a research review update. Current Hypertension Reviews 2012 8(3):1-16 The pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases are thought to be exacerbated by stress. Basic research indicates that the Transcendental Meditation® technique produces acute and longitudinal reductions in sympathetic tone and stress reactivity. In adolescents at risk for hypertension, the technique has been found to reduce resting and ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, cardiovascular reactivity, and to improve school behavior. Research on adults with mild or moderate essential hypertension has reported decreased blood pressure and reduced use of anti-hypertensive medication. The technique has also been reported to decrease symptoms of angina pectoris and carotid atherosclerosis, to reduce cardiovascular risk factors, including alcohol and tobacco use, to markedly reduce medical care utilization for cardiovascular diseases, and to significantly decrease cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality. These findings have important implications for inclusion of the Transcendental Meditation program in efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and their clinical consequences. Media Summary excerpt: In teens, the TM technique has been found to reduce blood pressure, improve heart structure and improve school behavior. According to the paper, the technique has been shown to be a safe alternative. The NIH-sponsored clinical trials conducted with TM mentioned in this review did not observe any adverse effects from TM practice. In adults the technique reduced stress hormones and other physiological measures of stress and produced more rapid recovery from stress, decreased blood pressure and use of blood pressure medication, decreased heart pain in angina patients, cleared the arteries, reducing the risk of stroke, improved distance walked in patients with congestive heart failure, and decreased alcohol and tobacco use, anxiety, depression, and medical care usage and expenditures. The technique also decreased risk of death from heart disease, cancer, and all causes.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Increased Longevity | RCT | 2005

Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Rainforth M, Staggers F, Salerno, J. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on mortality in older African Americans with hypertension—eight-year follow-up. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):201-216 During the eight years of follow up covered in this study, older African Americans with mild hypertension who practiced the TM technique showed lower mortality rates from cardiovascular disease compared to behavioral health education controls. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the adjusted relative risk for cardiovascular disease mortality of the TM group compared with Health Education was significantly reduced by 81%. The adjusted relative risk for all cause mortality of the TM group compared with Progressive Muscle Relaxation showed a trend with 57 % reduction in the analysis at 3 months. The adjusted relative risk for cancer of the TM group was reduced by 68% as compared with Health Education. This data suggests long term efficacy in reducing risk of mortality in older African Americans in a low socioeconomic status, inner city primary health care setting. To our knowledge this is the first controlled trial assessing the effects of stress reduction or any non-pharmacological intervention for hypertension for mortality in a high risk population.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Stress Reduction | 1997

Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association 1997 89(7):464-476 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Increased Longevity | RCT | 2001

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Davis H. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2001 51(4):597-605 This randomized controlled study that examined the impact of the TM practice on BP reactivity in African American adolescents with high normal resting systolic blood pressure found that compared to the control group subjects, TM subjects exhibited significantly greater decreases from pre to post intervention in systolic blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output reactivity to a car driving stressor and reduced systolic blood pressure reactivity to a social stressor interview. The study also found that the TM group exhibited a statistically significant 4.8-mmHg decreases in resting systolic blood pressure from pre-intervention to two months post-intervention, compared with an increase in 2.6-mmHg in the control group. These findings suggest that the TM practice may provide protection from the detrimental effects of exaggerated cardiovascular stress reactivity.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Education Adolescent | RCT | 2004

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Johnson MH. Impact of stress reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in African American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 2004 17(4):366-369 One hundred African American teenagers with blood pressure at the high end of normal were randomly assigned to two groups: One group learned TM and meditated twice a day for four months, whereas the other (control group) received health education lectures for a similar amount of time. At the end of the study, the TM group showed a significant drop in blood pressure compared with the control group, an effect that still held four months after the study ended. The TM group also had lower rates of absenteeism, suspensions and school rule violations than the control group.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 1999

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Turner JR, Davis H, Strong WB. Acute effects of Transcendental Meditation on hemodynamic functioning in middle-aged adults. Psychosomatic Medicine 1999 61(4):525-531Researchers who used impedance cardiography to measure total vascular peripheral resistance found that both blood pressure and total peripheral resistance decreased during the TM technique, suggesting an underlying hemodynamic mechanism for its cardio-protective effects.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1666 | EEG | TC | 1984

Badawi K, Wallace RK, Orme-Johnson D, Rouzeré A-M. Electrophysiologic characteristics of respiratory suspension periods occurring during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 1984 46(3):267-276 The combination of inner alertness, respiratory suspension, and high EEG coherence was found to characterize the state of transcendental consciousness experienced during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Left Ventricular Mass | RCT | 2012

Barnes VA, Kapuku GK, Treiber FA. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on left ventricular mass in African American adolescents. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 (in press)  Increased left ventricular mass (LVM) has long been known to increase the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, stroke, cardiac arrhythmias, and sudden death. An early sign of ventricular remodeling is increased left ventricular mass (LVM) which over time may lead to left ventricular hypertrophy, the strongest predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, other than advancing ageThe successful implementation of the intervention points to the potential of school-based stress reduction programs as a means of decreasing likelihood of early onset of LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) in high-risk youth. These findings indicate that among a group of prehypertensive African American adolescents, 4 months of TM compared to heath education resulted in a significant decrease in LVMI, and these changes were maintained at 4-month follow-up. Methods. 62 (30 TM; 32 CTL) African American adolescents (age 16.2 ± 1.3 years) with high normal systolic BP were randomly assigned to either 4-month Transcendental Meditation (TM) or health education control groups. The echocardiographic-derived measure of LVM index (LVMI = LVM/ht2.7) was measured before and after the 4-month TM study and at 4-month followup. 2D-guided M-mode echocardiography using a Hewlett Packard 5500 echosonograph was used to determine LVMI. Results. The TM group exhibited a greater decrease in LVMI at 4-month followup compared to the CTL group (−2.6 versus +0.3gm/ht2.7, P < 0.04). The TM group exhibited a lesser increase in BMI at 4-month follow-up compared to the CTL group (0.2 ± 1.6 versus 1.1 ± 1.4, P < 0.03).

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension in Youth & Adults | 2006

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Clinical and pre-clinical applications of the Transcendental Meditation program in the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension and cardiovascular disease in youth and adults. Current Hypertension Reviews 2006 2(3):207-218 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 2008

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. El impacto de la reduccion del estres en el hypertension esencial y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Revista Internacional De Ciencias Del Deporte (International Journal of Sports Science) 2008 4(12):1-30 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Research Review Update | 2012

Barnes VA, Orme-Johnson DW. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in adolescents and adults through the Transcendental Meditation Program®: a research review update. Current Hypertension Reviews 2012 8(3):1-16 The pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases are thought to be exacerbated by stress. Basic research indicates that the Transcendental Meditation® technique produces acute and longitudinal reductions in sympathetic tone and stress reactivity. In adolescents at risk for hypertension, the technique has been found to reduce resting and ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, cardiovascular reactivity, and to improve school behavior. Research on adults with mild or moderate essential hypertension has reported decreased blood pressure and reduced use of anti-hypertensive medication. The technique has also been reported to decrease symptoms of angina pectoris and carotid atherosclerosis, to reduce cardiovascular risk factors, including alcohol and tobacco use, to markedly reduce medical care utilization for cardiovascular diseases, and to significantly decrease cardiovascular and all-cause morbidity and mortality. These findings have important implications for inclusion of the Transcendental Meditation program in efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and their clinical consequences. Media Summary excerpt: In teens, the TM technique has been found to reduce blood pressure, improve heart structure and improve school behavior. According to the paper, the technique has been shown to be a safe alternative. The NIH-sponsored clinical trials conducted with TM mentioned in this review did not observe any adverse effects from TM practice. In adults the technique reduced stress hormones and other physiological measures of stress and produced more rapid recovery from stress, decreased blood pressure and use of blood pressure medication, decreased heart pain in angina patients, cleared the arteries, reducing the risk of stroke, improved distance walked in patients with congestive heart failure, and decreased alcohol and tobacco use, anxiety, depression, and medical care usage and expenditures. The technique also decreased risk of death from heart disease, cancer, and all causes.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Increased Longevity | RCT | 2005

Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Rainforth M, Staggers F, Salerno, J. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on mortality in older African Americans with hypertension—eight-year follow-up. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):201-216 During the eight years of follow up covered in this study, older African Americans with mild hypertension who practiced the TM technique showed lower mortality rates from cardiovascular disease compared to behavioral health education controls. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the adjusted relative risk for cardiovascular disease mortality of the TM group compared with Health Education was significantly reduced by 81%. The adjusted relative risk for all cause mortality of the TM group compared with Progressive Muscle Relaxation showed a trend with 57 % reduction in the analysis at 3 months. The adjusted relative risk for cancer of the TM group was reduced by 68% as compared with Health Education. This data suggests long term efficacy in reducing risk of mortality in older African Americans in a low socioeconomic status, inner city primary health care setting. To our knowledge this is the first controlled trial assessing the effects of stress reduction or any non-pharmacological intervention for hypertension for mortality in a high risk population.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Stress Reduction | 1997

Barnes VA, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association 1997 89(7):464-476 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Increased Longevity | RCT | 2001

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Davis H. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2001 51(4):597-605 This randomized controlled study that examined the impact of the TM practice on BP reactivity in African American adolescents with high normal resting systolic blood pressure found that compared to the control group subjects, TM subjects exhibited significantly greater decreases from pre to post intervention in systolic blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output reactivity to a car driving stressor and reduced systolic blood pressure reactivity to a social stressor interview. The study also found that the TM group exhibited a statistically significant 4.8-mmHg decreases in resting systolic blood pressure from pre-intervention to two months post-intervention, compared with an increase in 2.6-mmHg in the control group. These findings suggest that the TM practice may provide protection from the detrimental effects of exaggerated cardiovascular stress reactivity.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension Education Adolescent | RCT | 2004

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Johnson MH. Impact of stress reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in African American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 2004 17(4):366-369 One hundred African American teenagers with blood pressure at the high end of normal were randomly assigned to two groups: One group learned TM and meditated twice a day for four months, whereas the other (control group) received health education lectures for a similar amount of time. At the end of the study, the TM group showed a significant drop in blood pressure compared with the control group, an effect that still held four months after the study ended. The TM group also had lower rates of absenteeism, suspensions and school rule violations than the control group.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 1999

Barnes VA, Treiber FA, Turner JR, Davis H, Strong WB. Acute effects of Transcendental Meditation on hemodynamic functioning in middle-aged adults. Psychosomatic Medicine 1999 61(4):525-531Researchers who used impedance cardiography to measure total vascular peripheral resistance found that both blood pressure and total peripheral resistance decreased during the TM technique, suggesting an underlying hemodynamic mechanism for its cardio-protective effects.

Health | Review Paper CP Vol4 Pg2790 | Health | TC+ | 1980

Blicher B, Blondeau F, Choquette C, Deans A, Drouin P, Glaser J, Thibaudeau P. Méditation Transcendantale: revue de la littérature scientifique. Le Médecin du Québec 1980 15(8):46-66 The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program is found to result in a coherent state of neurological functioning which is maintained during activity. This forms the basis for optimal human performance and the development of higher states of consciousness as described in the Vedic Literature.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 2006

Bovee JC. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on blood pressure: a literature review. Modern Psychological Studies 2006 11:1-11 Many prevention and treatments methods exist for hypertension, but not all are effective or easy to incorporate into one’s life. Stress-reduction methods, including Transcendental Meditation (TM), has been suggested as such a method, but have received inconsistent reviews about its effect on blood pressure. This literature review of twelve clinical studies concludes patients who practice TM can significantly reduce blood pressure. The technique was found to be effective for groups at high risk for hypertension, such as African-Americans, as well as low-risk groups. TM also appears to be more effective than progressive muscle relaxation, another popular stress-management technique. TM should be incorporated into plans for treatment of hypertension. In all but three (Blackwell et al., 1976; Pollack et al., 1977; Castillo-Richmond et al., 2001) of the 11 studies reviewed, participants who practiced TM reduced their blood pressure. Two of the studies that did not support the hypothesis, lacked control groups and were methodologically weak (Blackwell et al., 1976; Pollack et al., 1977). Of the eight controlled studies, seven support the hypothesis that TM significantly lowers blood pressure. In the only study that failed to show these results, change in blood pressure was a secondary outcome and not investigated in full (Castillo-Richmond et al., 2001). A more in depth analysis and statistical control of confounding variables may have produced different results. The findings of the controlled trials are convincing and generalizable. The majority of the studies carefully matched treatments for daily time commitment, attention from instructors, and checked for differences in expected treatment benefits between groups. These precautions help to rule out the contributions of non-specific factors simply associated with being part of an intervention. Many studies controlled for anthropometric and lifestyle differences between groups that existed at baseline. Results are generalizable to both resting blood pressure (Alexander et al., 1996; Barnes et al., 2001; Schneider et al., 1995; Schneider et al., 2005; Seer & Raeburn, 1980; Wenneberg et al., 1997) and ambulatory blood pressure (Barnes et al., 2004; Wenneberg et al., 1997), to normotensives (Barnes et al., 2001; Barnes et al., 2004, Wenneberg et al., 1997) and hypertensives (Alexander et al., 1996; Schneider et al., 1995; Schneider et al., 2005; Seer & Raeburn, 1980), across ethnicities and ages. TM was found to be a successful antihypertensive method across different lifestyle risk factors (Alexander et al., 1996) and for those groups especially at risk for elevated blood pressure, such as women (Alexander et al., 1996), the elderly (Schneider et al., 1995), African Americans (Barnes et al., 2004; Schneider et al., 1995, and adolescents with high normal blood pressure (Barnes et al., 2001; Barnes et al., 2004). Before excluding behavioral stress-reduction approaches as a recommendation for treatment of high blood pressure, as was the case in the recent JNC report (2003), clinical outcomes of the various stress-reduction techniques should be evaluated individually in order to not overlook any promising methods. http://campus.lakeforest.edu/kelley/bovee-2006.pdf

Health | Psychological | Affective | PTSD | RCT | 1985

Brooks JS, Scarano T. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development 1985 64:212-215 Over a three month period, people practicing the TM program showed clear-cut improvements in all aspects of PTSD syndrome, with significant decreases in depression, anxiety, insomnia, alcohol consumption, improvement in family problems, reduced severity of delayed stress syndrome and less emotional numbness, as well as greater ease in obtaining a job. By contrast the control group, who received standard treatment with psychotherapy showed no significant change on any measure.

Health | Physiological CPVol 2 Pg 804 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Increase in Serotonin – Rest and Fulfillment and Decrease in Fight or Flight response | 1976

Bujatti M, Riederer P. Serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine metabolites in Transcendental Meditation.
Journal of Neural Transmission 1976 39(3):257-267
Practitioners of the TM technique showed highly significant increases in levels of 5-HIAA (a serotonin metabolite) indicating an increase in rest and fulfillment and lower levels of VMA (an adrenaline and non-adrenaline metabolite) indicating a decrease in the fight or flight (arousal) response as compared to control subjects.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Cholesterol/Stress | 1999

Calderon R, Schneider R, Alexander CN, Myers H, Nidich S, Haney C. Stress, stress reduction and hypercholesterolemia in African Americans and whites: a review. Ethnicity and Disease 1999 9:451-462 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing significant improvement in cardiovascular health thru the practice of the TM technique.

Health | Physiological | Hypertension | Atherosclerosis | RCT | 2000

Castillo-Richmond A, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Cook R, Myers H, Nidich S, Haney C, Rainforth M, Salerno J. Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans.
Stroke 2000 31(3):568-573
This randomized controlled trial of 60 African American subjects compared the effects of TM practice with a heart disease education group on carotid intima-media thickness, a validated surrogate measure for coronary and cerebral atherosclerosis. The results indicated a statistically significant decrease in carotid intima-media thickness, in the TM group by a 0.098mm (95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.198, 0.003mm]) compared with an increase of 0.054mm (95% CI [-0.05, 0.158mm]) in the control group    (p=.038 for difference between groups), suggesting that TM may reduce carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans. The literature indicates that changes of this magnitude predict a reduction in heart attacks (MI) by 11% (Salonen and Salonen 1993) and stroke by 7.7.% to 15% (O’Leary et al., by 1999)

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1787 | Cardiovascular | Reduced Cholesterol | 1978

Cooper M, Aygen M. Effect of meditation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Harefuah, Journal of the Israel Medical Association 1978 95(1):1-2 Subjects with normal or slightly elevated blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels showed reduction n both these parameters as a result of the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Over 10-14 months the TM group showed a significant decrease in both diastolic and systolic blood pressure (p<.001). Over the same time period the TM group showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol concentration (p<.001).

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1819 | Cardiovascular | Reduced Cholesterol | 1979

Cooper M, Aygen M. Transcendental Meditation in the management of hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Human Stress 1979 5(4):24-27 Long term reduction in serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects were found to result from the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. After 11 months, the subjects of the meditation group showed a mean fasting serum cholesterol which was significantly less than their own baseline (p<.005). Five reduced their serum cholesterol by 4% to 9%, three by 10% to 20%, and three by 20% to 35%.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Angina Symptoms | 2000

Cunningham CH, Brown S, Kaski JC. The effects of Transcendental Meditation on symptoms and electrocardiographic changes in patients with cardiac syndrome X: a pilot study. American Journal of Cardiology 2000 85(5):653-655 A British study found positive effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on exercise ECG testing and quality of life in patients with cardiac syndrome X (anginal chest pain, positive response to exercise stress testing, and normal coronary angiogram.) Note: Despite a generally good prognosis, this distressing and disabling condition often necessitates expensive and invasive investigations, and recurrent hospital admissions; drug treatment is frequently unsatisfactory.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2964 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Rest Difference Between TM and Rest | Meta | 1987

Dillbeck MC, Orme-Johnson DW. Physiological differences between Transcendental Meditation and rest. American Psychologist 1987 42(9):879-881 A meta-analysis of 31 research studies showed deep rest during the Transcendental Meditation technique and greater physiological stability and relaxation outside the practice. The research evidence is generally consistent with the hypothesis that there is reduced somatic arousal during the TM technique in comparison with rest, yet at the same time other physiological changes indicative of increased alertness are also present. In addition, although there is evidence that TM meditators respond different to stress than controls do, this difference may be addressed more successfully by looking at adaptive efficiency of physiological processes rather than reduction of somatic arousal during stress.

Health | Physiological CPVol 2 Pg 874 | Health | Self-Care Dialysis/Transplant Patient | 1976

Doner DW. The Transcendental Meditation technique—a self-care program for the dialysis/transplant patient. Journal of the American Association of Nephrology Nurses and Technicians 1976 3(3):119-125 The TM program was found to be of great benefit in improving the quality of life of patients under treatment for advanced kidney disease.

Health | Physiological | Health | Diabetes | 2006

Elder C, Aickin M, Bauer V, Cairns J, Vuckovic N. Randomized trial of a whole-system Ayurvedic protocol for type 2 diabetes. Alternative Therapies 2006 12(5):24-30 This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in the management of Type 2 diabetes.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Neurotransmitter Enhanced Functioning | 2000

Elias AN, Guich S, Wilson AF. Ketosis with enhanced GABAergic tone promotes physiological changes in Transcendental Meditation. Medical Hypotheses 2000 54(4):660-662 Transcendental meditation (TM) is a mental technique for physical and mental relaxation which is associated with changes in the secretion and release of several pituitary hormones. The hormonal changes induced by TM mimic the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is hypothesized that TM produces changes in pituitary hormone secretion by enhancing hypothalamic GABAergic tone as a result of TM associated ketosis. Ketosis enhances the entry of glutamate, the amino acid substrate of GABA into synaptosomes, making more glutamate available for conversion to GABA through the glutamate decarboxylase pathway.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg4214 | Metabolic Changes | Neurotransmitters | 1995

Elias AN, Wilson AF. Serum hormonal concentrations following Transcendental Meditation: potential role of gamma aminobutyric acid. Medical Hypotheses 1995 44(4):287-291 The authors review research on the hormonal changes associated with the Transcendental Meditation Technique and attempt to understand these changes in light of the known effects of the neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) on hormonal secretion and release, proposing that one of the mechanisms by which the Transcendental Meditation Technique produces relaxation is by enhancing the effects of an endogenous neurotransmitter.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2968 | Metabolic Changes | Unique State of Rest; Reduced Metabolic & Heart Rate | 1980

Farrell DJ. The reduction in metabolic rate and heart rate of man during meditation. In LE Mount (ed.),Energy Metabolism (pp.279-282). EAAP Publication # 26. London: Butterworth & Co., 1980 Metabolic Rate (as evidenced by heat production) and heart rate decreased during the Transcendental Meditation technique as compared to an eyes-closed rest baseline period.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1611 | Physiological Efficiency | TC Respiratory Suspension | 1982

Farrow JT, Hebert JR. Breath suspension during the Transcendental Meditation technique.
Psychosomatic Medicine 1982 44(2):133-153
Periods of breath suspension were found to be a frequent occurrence during the Transcendental Meditation technique. These periods, together with low metabolic rate, reduced heart rate, increased autonomic stability and increased EEG coherence were found to be associated with experience of pure consciousness during the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Atherosclerosis in Elderly | RCT | 2002

Fields JZ, Walton KW, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Pomerantz R, Suchdev P, Castillo-Richmond A, Payne K, Clark ET, Rainforth M. Effect of a multimodality natural medicine program on carotid atherosclerosis in older subjects: a pilot trial of Maharishi Vedic Medicine. American Journal of Cardiology 2002 89(8):952-958 The practice of the TM technique reduced carotid artery atherosclerosis compared to control groups who practiced progressive muscle relaxation.

Health | Physiological CPVol5 Pg2970 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Comparing Techniques Unique State of Rest; | 1984

Gallois P. Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. L’Encephale 1984 10:139-144 The Transcendental Meditation technique was uniquely effective, as compared to other forms of relaxation, in producing a physiological state of restful alertness.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2977 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Restful Alertness Stabilized | 1984

Garnier D, Cazabat A, Thébault P, Gauge P. Pulmonary ventilation during the Transcendental Meditation technique: applications in preventive medicine. Est-Médicine 1984 4(76):867-870 Oxygen consumption decreased in subjects during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. TM participants also showed lower levels outside the practice indicating a stabilized state of restful alertness.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg3017 | EEG | Stress Reduction | RCT | 1989

Gaylord C, Orme-Johnson D, Travis F. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscular relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience 1989 46(1/2):77-86 Participants in the Transcendental Meditation program increased in EEG coherence during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Meditators also decreased in neuroticism and anxiety and increased in mental health over the one-year study period.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3742 | Metabolic, Biochemical | Aging; Younger Biological Age | 1992

Glaser JL, Brind JL, Vogelman JH, Eisner MJ, Dillbeck MC, Wallace RK, Orenteich N. Elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi programs. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1992 15(4):327-341 Compared to controls, middle aged and older individuals practicing the TM technique have been found to maintain higher levels of DHEA-s a hormone that declines steadily throughout adult life. Low levels of DHEA-s have been linked to a variety of diseases and with increased mortality. On average levels of DHEA-s in people practicing the TM technique were comparable to levels of non-meditators who were 5 to 10 years younger – a difference that could not be explained by variations in diet, weight, or exercise habits. Indications of Younger Biological Age: Increased DHEA-S Levels in Female and Older Male Practitioners of the TM and TM-Sidhi Program. Studies show DHEA-S acts as a mood elevator (anti-depressive).

Health | Review CPVol 2 Pg1238 | Health | Health Benefits | 1978

Gräf D. Die Technik der Transzendentalen Meditation und ihre Wirkungen auf die Gesundheit.Erfahrungsheilkunde 1978 27(3):99-102 The benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique for physiological functioning and their importance for health are reviewed.

Health | Physiological | Health | Responsibility for One’s Own Health | 1978

Gräf D, Pfisterer G. Der Nutzen der Technik der Transzendentalen Meditation für die ärztliche Praxis.Erfahrungsheilkunde 1978 27(9):594-596 The Transcendental Meditation technique improves physiological and psychological functioning and enhances the individual’s sense of responsibility for his own health. The self-sufficient nature of the technique is especially welcomed by those who are concerned about dependence on both medication and the therapist. Acute crises happen less frequently and are less serious; the necessity for calling a doctor occurs strikingly less often.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3909 | Productivity and Quality of Life | Decreased Insomnia, Decreased Cigarettes, Increased Health of Industrial Workers | 1990

Haratani T, Hemmi T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on health behavior of industrial workers.
Japanese Journal of Public Health 1990 37:729
Industrial workers who learned the Transcendental Meditation program, in contrast to control employees, showed improved sleep quality, and decreased cigarette consumption. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the Transcendental Meditation program on worker’s health and behavior. Surveys were conducted before and after the introduction of the TM program. 427 TM participants and 308 controls who did not begin the practice in terms of health and behavior. The group who learned the TM program showed reduced time to fall asleep, less awakening during sleep, decrease in habitual smoking and fewer cigarettes smoked.

Health | Physiological CPVol 2 Pg 845 | EEG | Increased Satisfaction | 1977

Hebert JR, Lehmann D. Theta bursts: an EEG pattern in normal subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1977 42(3):397-405 Frontally dominant theta bursts were found in subjects practicing the TM technique. These were seen to be different than theta in sleep or pathological states, and may be associated with the experience of satisfaction.

Health | Physiological | EEG | TC Unique State of Restful Alertness TM Compared to Eyes-Closed Rest | 2005

Hebert JR, Lehmann D, Tan G, Travis FT, Arenander A. Enhanced EEG alpha time-domain phase synchrony during Transcendental Meditation: implications for cortical integration theory. Signal Processing 2005 85(11):2213-2232 Information transfer and integration in the brain that leads to high-level cognitive processes requires neuronal coordination. High phase synchronization (zero-lag) in fast frequencies is implicated in integrating sensory events. Alpha EEG activity, long regarded as a passive “idling” frequency, is now being implicated in this integrative function. As an example, in brain pathology decreased alpha phase synchrony is correlated with a decline in cognitive function. Transcendental Meditation (TM) provides an interesting starting point to study neuronal coordination because the “transcending experience is a baseline state of consciousness, a condition of restful alertness without cognitive activity. Previous work on TM, reported to increase numerous indices of mind-body health, has been shown to increase neural coherence in the alpha band. In this study 15 subjects practicing the TM technique were investigated for changes in alpha phase synchrony. A time-domain method was used to measure millisecond phase shifts in 19 electrodes in long-term practitioners of TM in two conditions: eyes-closed resting and meditation. Significant reductions in millisecond phase lag were found during the meditation condition as compared to the eyes-closed resting condition in 30 of 49 long-range electrode pairings between frontal and occipital-parietal areas. Under the same conditions, twelve control subjects without meditation experience showed no change in alpha phase synchrony over the same time period. It is proposed that enhanced phase synchrony in the alpha frequency during meditation may improve functional integration and may have implications for performance and mind-body health. A short proposal for a phase synchrony model of consciousness is included.

Health | Physiological | Health Care Utilization | Reduction in Health Care Costs | 2011

Herron R. Changes in physician costs among high cost Transcendental Meditation practitioners compared with high cost non-practitioners over 5 years. American Journal of Health Promotion, 2011 26 (1):56-60. This study found that medical expenditures of high cost people decreased 28% over five years of practicing the Transcendental Meditation program (TM) compared to no significant change in matched high cost controls (Non-TM). Both groups received the usual medical care. Before starting meditation, the yearly rate of increase in payments to physicians between groups was not significantly different. After commencing meditation, the TM group’s mean payments declined $44.93 annually (p < .004), whereas the NT comparison group’s payments exhibited nonsignificant changes. After 1 year, the TM group decreased 11%, and after 5 years their cumulative reduction was 28% (p < .001). The results suggest the intervention may be an effective method for reducing physician costs.

Health | Physiological | Health Care Utilization | Reduction in Health Care Costs for the Elderly | 2005

Herron RE, Cavanaugh KL. Can the Transcendental Meditation program reduce the medical expenditures of older people? A longitudinal cost-reduction study in Canada. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):415-442 This study examined whether a method for enhancing psychological and physiological balance and health, the Transcendental Meditation Technique (TM), can reduce medical expenditures in people over 65 years old. Inflation adjusted payments to physicians for treating 163 TM practitioners were compared with those of 163 control participants matched for age, sex, and median pre-intervention payments. During the pre-meditation period, mean changes in payments, differed non-significantly between groups (p=.27). After learning the TM technique, the mean annual change in payments for the TM practitioners was significantly lower than for controls (p=.001). The TM group’s five year cumulative reduction relative to controls was 70%.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3920 | Health Care Utilization | Reduction in Health Care Costs | 1996

Herron RE, Hillis SL, Mandarino JV, Orme-Johnson DW, Walton KG. The impact of the Transcendental Meditation program on government payments to physicians in Quebec. American Journal of Health Promotion 1996 10(3):208-216 Decreased Payments for Physicians Services. A study using government statistics in Quebec analyzed the medical expenses of 677 people practicing the TM program for three years before and up to severn years after learning the technique. Monthly data on payments to physicians for treatment under the provincial health insurance scheme were adjusted to account for aging, inflation, and other influences, using normative data provided by the Quebec government. After commencing the TM technique, real expenses declined 5 to 7 percent annually over the seven year follow-up period.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1905 | Motor & Perceptual | Increased Visual Choice Reaction Time | 1978

Holt WR, Caruso JL, Riley JB. Transcendental Meditation vs pseudo-meditation on visual choice reaction time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1978 46(3):726 Subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique showed greater improvement in visual choice reaction time than subjects practicing either a pseudo-meditation technique or merely resting,

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Improved Hormonal Functioning | 1998

Infante JR, Peran F, Martinez M, Roldan A, Poyatos R, Ruiz C, Samaniego F, Garrido F. ACTH and beta-endorphin in Transcendental Meditation. Physiology and Behavior 1998 64(3):311-315  The authors have evaluated the effect of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal axis diurnal rhythms through the determination of hormone levels. The fact that the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis are modified with regular practice of TM reinforces the hypothesis that the effect of the technique focuses upon the upper neural structures. The authors believe that the results coincide with previous papers which consider that changes in lack of stress response in TM practitioners may be due to a change in neural regulation and that this relaxation technique produces changes in pituitary hormone secretion by enhancing hypothalamic-aminobutyric acid (GABA) tone. In conclusion, from the results obtained for the different parameters studied, it may be considered that the use of TM had a significant effect on the neuroendocrine axis of subjects belonging to the experimental group. This effect is manifest in the different circulating levels of the hormones analyzed, as well as in modifications of the daily secretion pattern. TM practitioners with similar anxiety levels to the control group show a different daytime secretion pattern in the pituitary hormones which could be due to possible modulation of the hypothalamo – hypophyseal axis. Be- cause cortisol levels have a normal pattern in the TM group, these results may be due to a change in feedback sensitivity caused by this mental technique. In future studies, the authors shall try to establish the exact evolution of these hormones and the possible existence of peaks of secretion which are different to those established as the normal pattern, by measuring the daytime rhythm of cortisol and ACTH at hourly intervals.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Improved Hormonal Functioning | 2010

Infante JR, Peran F, Rayo JI, Serrano J, Dominguez ML, Garcia L, Duran C, Sanchez R, Roldan A. Daytime hormonal rhythms in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation-Sidhi program.Biomedical Research 2010 21:161-166 The aim of the study was to evaluate the daytime rhythm of hormones in subjects who are practitioners of the advanced meditation technique TM-Sidhi. The study group consisted of five subjects, two women and three men, with at least two years of experience in the practice of the technique. Blood samples were taken at hourly intervals from 09:00h to 21:00h. The subjects practiced meditation for one hour between 12:00h and 13:00h. Cortisol and ACTH levels were measured using radioimmunoassay methods, whereas catecholamines concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Cortisol showed a normal rhythm, with values significantly higher in the morning than in the afternoon (p=0.003, Kruskal-Wallis test), with a non significant decline in the levels during the period of meditation. For ACTH, there were no diurnal variations (p= 0.4), but with elevated levels of the hormone after meditation. Catecholamines showed no significant differences between the morning and afternoon concentrations (p= 0.09 for NE, p= 0.08 for E). After the TM-Sidhi program their values declined, reaching the minimum level at 14:00h. The present study found patterns of the daytime secretion of ACTH and catecholamines in practitioners of the TM-Sidhi technique that were different from those normally described. After the period of meditation, there was an increase in the levels of the hypophyseal hormone to reach its maximum daytime concentration. This was associated with decreased plasma catecholamines levels. The technique of meditation seems to have a significant effect on the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system and the neuroendocrine axis. http://www.biomedres.org/journal/pdf/364.pdf

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Improved Hormonal Functioning | 2001

Infante JR, Torres-Avisbal M, Pinel P, Vallejo JA, Peran F, Gonzalez F, Contreras P, Pacheco C, Roldan A, Latre JM. Catecholamine levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique.Physiology and Behavior 2001 72(2):141-146 Based on the results obtained, it can be considered that the regular practice of TM has a significant effect on the sympathetic -adrenal medulla system. A low hormonal response to daily stress caused by sympathetic tone regulation through regular TM could explain our results, as well as the physiological and other effects related to the field of health described in those who practice meditation. With the aim of evaluating the sympathetic-adrenal medulla system in subjects practicing transcendental meditation (TM), their plasma catecholamine levels were determined at two different times of day. The study group consisted of 19 subjects who regularly practice either the TM or Sidhi -TM techniques, with a control group made up of 16 healthy subjects who had not previously used any relaxation technique. Catecholamine plasma levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, at 0900 and 2000 h Morning and evening norepinephrine (NE) levels and morning epinephrine (E) levels were significantly lower in the TM group than in the control subjects (morning NE levels, pg/ml, mean plus or minus S.E.: TM group 136.6 plus or minus 13.0, control 236.8 plus or minus 21.0, P – 0001; evening NE levels: TM group 119.7 plus or minus 10.8, control 175.6 plus or minus 17.4, P=.009;morning E levels, pg/ml: TM group 140.2 plus or minus 10.6,control 196.7 plus or minus 23.8, P= .019). No differences were recorded for evening E levels and dopamine (DA) levels. No significant differences were found for catecholamine levels measured at different times of day in the TM group, demonstrating a lack of daily hormonal rhythm. Anxiety levels were similar in both groups.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3795 | EEG | Restful Alertness Stabilized | 1996

Istratov EN, Lyubimov NN, Orlova TV. Dynamic features of the modified state of consciousness during Transcendental Meditation. Biulleten Eksperimental Biologii Meditsiny 1996 121:128-130 This study found EEG indications of restful alertness during and after the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique as measured by increased stability of alpha activity, increased beta power, and reduced slow wave delta and theta power during the practice of the TM technique and the persistence of these EEG spectral distribution changes immediately after the practice.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Decreased Congestive Heart Failure Symptoms | RCT | 2007

Jayadevappa R, Johnson JC, Bloom BS, Nidich S, Desai S, Chhatre S, Razian D, Schneider RH. Effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation on functional capacity and quality of life of African Americans with congestive heart failure: a randomized control study. Ethnicity and Disease 2007 17:72-77 This 6 month randomized pilot trial of 23 African American patients recently hospitalized for chronic heart failure found that the TM group significantly improved on functional capacity on a 6-minute walk test compared with control subjects who received only health education. TM subjects also had reduced depression and only three hospitalizations compared to six for controls.

Health | Review CPVol 5 Pg3322 | Health | Improved Individual and Collective Health Reduce Health Care Costs | 1988

Jedrczak A, Miller D, Antoniou M. Transcendental Meditation and health: an overview of experimental research and clinical experience. Health Promotion 1988 2(4):369-376 The authors review the large body of research literature indicating improved individual and collective health through The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program, and propose that this program be applied on a large scale to improve public health and reduce health care costs.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3737 | Cardiovascular | Increased Cerebral Blood Flow | 1996

Jevning R, Anand R, Beidebach M, Fernando G. Effects on regional cerebral blood flow of Transcendental Meditation. Physiology and Behavior 1996 59(3):399-402  Practicing TM results in: Increased Relative Blood Flow to the Brain in Frontal and Occipital Regions; Decreased Cerebrovascular Resistance Correlated with Increased Relative Cerebral Blood Flow; Increased Galvanic Skin Resistance; Increased Galvanic Skin Resistance Correlated with Increased Relative Cerebral Blood Flow.

Health | Physiological CPVol 2 Pg 815 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Pain Relieving and Anti-Depressive | 1977

Jevning R, Pirkle H, Wilson AF. Behavioral alteration of plasma phenylalanine concentration.
Physiology and Behavior 1977 19(5):611-614
Plasma phenylalanine concentration was found to increase during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique, while no change was seen during ordinary relaxation. Phenylalanine is reputed to have pain relieving and an anti-depressive effects.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg4173 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Integrated Physiological Response | 1992

Jevning R, Wallace RK, Beidebach M. The physiology of meditation: a review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 1992 16(3):415-424The authors propose that practice of the Transcendental Meditation Technique creates an integrated physiological response with peripheral circulatory and metabolic changes subserving increased central nervous activity, and review data from previous research on physiological changes associated with the Transcendental Meditation Program

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2999 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Increased Efficiency in Neuroendocrine Regulation | 1987

Jevning R, Wells I, Wilson AF, Guich S. Plasma thyroid hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone, and insulin during acute hypometabolic state in man. Physiology and Behavior 1987 40(5):603-606 The Transcendental Meditation practice was found to have both short- and long term effects on thyroid function, suggesting more efficient neuroendocrine regulation.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3Pg 1507 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Reduced Stress | 1978

Jevning R, Wilson AF, Davidson JM. Adrenocortical activity during meditation. Hormones and Behavior 1978 10(1):54-60 The practice of the TM technique was associated with an acute decline in adrenocortical activity. Since increased adrenocortical hormone levels are well-established correlates of both acute and chronic stress, the decline seen to result from the practice of Transcendental Meditation has important implications for counteracting stress.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1633 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Deep Rest | 1982

Jevning R, Wilson AF, O’Halloran JP. Muscle and skin blood flow and metabolism during states of decreased activation. Physiology and Behavior 1982 29(2):343-348 Forearm oxygen consumption declined markedly during the Transcendental Meditation technique due to a decreased rate of tissue oxygen extraction. These findings indicate reduced metabolism in muscle tissue and reflect a unique state of deep rest.

Health | Physiological CPVol 4 Pg2224 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Deep Rest | 1983

Jevning R, Wilson AF, O’Halloran JP, Walsh RN. Forearm blood flow and metabolism during stylized and unstylized states of decreased activation. American Journal of Physiology 1983 245 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol.14):R110-R116 Forearm oxygen consumption declined markedly during the Transcendental Meditation technique due to a decreased rate of tissue oxygen extraction. These findings indicate reduced metabolism in muscle and reflect a unique state of deep rest.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2988 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Rest Difference Between TM and Rest | 1985

Jevning R, Wilson AF, Pirkle H, Guich S, Walsh RN. Modulation of red cell metabolism by states of decreased activation: comparison between states. Physiology and Behavior 1985 35(5):679-682 This study showed lower aerobic lactate generation on the cellular level during the practice of the TM technique.

Health | Physiological CPVol 4 Pg2230 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Deep Rest | 1983

Jevning R, Wilson AF, Pirkle H, O’Halloran JP, Walsh RN. Metabolic control in a state of decreased activation: modulation of red cell metabolism. American Journal of Physiology 1983 245 (Cell Physiol.14):C457-C461 Red blood cells taken from subjects during the Transcendental Meditation technique were found to show a decrease in lactate production compared to red cells taken during a control period. This finding indicates a marked reduction in red cell glucose metabolism during the Transcendental Meditation technique which is not observed in other physiological states and which is apparently mediated by a unique mechanism.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1512 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Reduced Stress | 1978

Jevning R, Wilson AF, Smith WR. The Transcendental Meditation technique, adrenocortical activity, and implications for stress. Experientia 1978 34(5):618-619 The practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique was associated with an acute decline in adrenocortical activity. Since increased adrenocortical hormone levels are well-established correlates of both acute and chronic stress, the decline seen to result from the practice of Transcendental Meditation has important implications for counteracting stress.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Increase in Cerebral Blood Flow Different from Eyes-Closed Rest | 1978

Jevning R, Wilson AF, Smith WR, Morton ME. Redistribution of blood flow in acute hypometabolic behavior. American Journal of Physiology 1978 235(1):R89-R92 During the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique, hepatic and renal blood flow were found to decrease, while cardiac output increased, suggesting that a large increase of cerebral blood flow occurs during the Transcendental Meditation technique. There were significant statistical differences when these parameters were compared to eyes closed rest controls.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1514 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Increased Relaxation | 1978

Jevning R, Wilson AF, VanderLaan EF. Plasma prolactin and growth hormone during meditation.Psychosomatic Medicine 1978 40(4):329-333 Plasma prolactin was found to increase in both short- and long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique either towards the end or shortly after the practice. Prolactin is an indicator of relaxation and promotes neurogenesis. (production of neurons (brain cells). Eyes closed rest did not produce an increase in prolactin. The increase in prolactin found during sleep is found to immediately wane on awakening. The persistence of the TM-associated prolactin increase suggests that the events involved are different from those activated in sleep.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1652 | EEG | Increased Relaxation | 1978

Kemmerling T. Wirkung der Transzendentalen Meditation auf den Muskeltonus. Psychopathometrie1978 4:437-438 Subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique showed a greater degree of muscular relaxation as measured by electromyography, than a control group who relaxed.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 2002

King MS, Carr T, D’Cruz C. Transcendental meditation, hypertension and heart disease. Australian Family Physician 2002 31:164-168 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Psychological CPVol3 Pg2049 | Development of Personality | Reduction in Nervousness, Depression, Increased Self-Confidence | 1979

Kniffki C. Transzendentale Meditation und Autogenes Training—ein Vergleich. In series Geist und Psyche. Munich: Kindler Verlag, 1979 The practice of the TM technique was found to result in cumulative benefits for psychological health. By comparison, the effects of Autogenic Training, were, in general, less substantial and not sustained. Reduction in Nervousness, Depression, Increased Self-Confidence

Health | Physiological | Health | Reduced Stress | 1995

Knight S. Use of Transcendental Meditation to relieve stress and promote health. British Journal of Nursing 1995 4(6):315-318 This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in improving quality of life and mental health in patients with chronic disorders.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 2001

Kondwani KA, Lollis CM. Is there a role for stress management in reducing hypertension in African Americans? Ethnicity and Disease 2001 11:788-792  Increased left ventricle mass or left ventricle hypertrophy are indicators of hypertensive disease and a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality (Levy, Garrison, Savage, Kannel & Castelli, 1990) In a pilot study of TM and left ventricle mass, African Americans with stage 1 hypertension on average (N=34, M age = 50.7 years + or – 8.7 years were randomized to a TM group or a health education group (HE) whose members learned how to reduce their blood pressure with life style modifications of diet and exercise. After one year both groups showed a significant within group reduction in left ventricle mass (TM=10.3% and HE 14.5%) with no significant between group difference.

Health | Review CPVol 2 Pg1277 | Health | Reduced Stress & Psychosomatic Complaints | 1980

Kroener D. Transzendentale Meditation und ihre Indikationen für den niedergelassenen Arzt.Biologische Medizin 1980 9(3):122-127 The benefits of the TM program in medical practice are described with particular reference to the alleviation of stress-related illness and psychosomatic complaints.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1584 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Restful Alertness | 1979

Lang R, Dehof K, Meurer KA, Kaufmann W. Sympathetic activity and Transcendental Meditation.Journal of Neural Transmission 1979 44(1/2):117-135 The findings of this study indicate that the Transcendental Meditation technique gives rise to a unique physiological state which involves the activity of aspects of both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, and that these effects become most clearly evident in more experienced meditators. The results contribute to an understanding of the coexistence of very deep rest with enhanced alertness during the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Health | Physiological CPVol 1 Pg 187 | EEG | Increased Coherence, Orderliness of Brain Functioning TM Different from Drowsiness, Sleep and Eyes Close Rest | 1976

Levine PH. The coherence spectral array (COSPAR) and its application to the spatial ordering of the EEG. Proceedings of the San Diego Biomedical Symposium 1976 15:237-247 Increases in EEG coherence specific to the Transcendental Meditation technique, especially in the alpha and theta bands, indicated increased ordering of bran wave activity during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Central and frontal EEGs from 28 subjects spanning an array of experience with the TM technique from 0-15 years were analyzed by means of the coherence spectral array. In most cases, increases in coherence specific to the TM Technique particularly in the alpha and theta bands were observed relative to eyes closed control periods. Sleep studies showed that drowsiness and loss of consciousness were accompanied by a decreases n coherence. Thus, the present findings indicate that the neurological state reached during the Transcendental Meditation technique differs from drowsiness, sleep onset and simple eyes-closed relaxation, the difference being a higher degree of long range ordering in the EEG.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1861 | Health | Chronic Disorders Health Promotion “People Oriented” | 1982

Lovell-Smith HD. Transcendental Meditation—treating the patient as well as the disease. New Zealand Family Physician 1982 9:62-65 The TM program is discussed as a scientifically validated method with a wide range of benefits for the promotion of positive health. The discussion is illustrated by a case report. This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in improving quality of life and mental health in patients with chronic disorders.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3898 | Health | Reduced Migraine Headaches | 1985

Lovell-Smith HD. Transcendental Meditation and three cases of migraine. New Zealand Medical Journal 1985 98:443-445 Reduced Frequency and Severity of Migraine Headaches This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in improving quality of life and mental health in patients with chronic disorders.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Stress Reduction | RCT | 1997

MacLean CR, Walton KG, Wenneberg SR, Levitsky DK, Mandarino JV, Waziri R, Hillis SL, Schneider RH. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after four months of practice. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1997 22(4):277-295 More Adaptive Biochemical Response to Stress: Decreased Baseline Cortisol and Decreased Overall Cortisol During Stress Session; Enhanced Cortisol Response During Stressful Challenge with Rapid Return to Baseline; Decreased Plasma Serotonin Relative to Controls for Baseline, Average and Response to Stress. (In contrast to whole body serotonin metabolism, low plasma serotonin indicates decreased stress and decreased risk of High Blood Pressure. Low Baseline Cortisol and Enhanced Cortisol Response to stress is a more stable and adaptive physiological profile.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Increased Electrolytes | 1974

McCuaig LW. Salivary electrolytes, proteins and pH during Transcendental Meditation. Experientia1974 30(9):988-989 During the practice of the TM technique salivary electrolytes and protein increased in concentration while salivary pH decreased. Salivary pH significantly increased 10 minutes after the practice of the TM technique.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1672 | EEG | Improved Processing of Auditory Information | 1980

McEvoy TM, Frumkln LR, Harkins SW. Effects of meditation on brainstem auditory evoked potentials.International Journal of Neuroscience 1980 10(2/3):165-170 The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program was found to result in changes in brainstem auditory evoked potentials, suggestive of improved processing of auditory information.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3751 | Metabolic, Biochemical | Reduced Stress | 1990

Mills PJ, Schneider RH, Hill D, Walton K, Wallace RK. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in subjects practicing Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1990 34(1):29-33 This study found that those who practice the Transcendental Meditation technique show reduced sensitivity to stress hormones.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1789 | Physiological Efficiency & Stability | Reduced Distress Associated with Pain | 1981

Mills WW, Farrow JT. The Transcendental Meditation technique and acute experimental pain.Psychosomatic Medicine 1981 43(2):157-164 Practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique showed less distress associated with the experience of acute experimental pain than non-meditating control subjects. This finding is discussed in relation to developing higher states of consciousness. The reports of the TM group on the intensity of perceived pain were not significantly different from those of the control group, but the TM group’s reports indicated significantly less distress associated with the experience of acute experimental pain than the control group.

Health | Physiological | Health | Improvement in Chronic Disease Natural Approach | 2000

Nader T, Rothenberg S, Averbach R, Charles B, Fields JZ, Schneider RH. Improvements in chronic diseases with a comprehensive natural medicine approach: a review and case series. Behavioral Medicine 2000 26(1):34-46 Approximately 40% of the US population report using complementary and alternative medicine, including Maharishi Vedic Medicine (MVM), a traditional, comprehensive system of natural medicine, for relief from chronic and other disorders. Although many reports suggest health benefits from individual MVM techniques, reports on integrated holistic approaches are rare. This case series, designed to investigate the effectiveness of an integrated, multi-modality MVM program in an ideal clinical setting, describes the outcomes in four patients: one with sarcoidosis; one with Parkinson’s disease; a third with renal hypertension; and a fourth with diabetes/essential hypertension/anxiety disorder. Standard symptom report and objective markers of disease were evaluated before, during and after the treatment period. Results suggested substantial improvements as indicated by reductions in major signs, symptoms, and use of conventional medications in the four patients during the 3-week in-residence treatment phase and continuing through the home follow-up program.

Health | Physiological | Health | Improved Quality of Life for Breast Cancer Patients | RCT | 2009

Nidich SI, Fields JZ, Rainforth MV, Pomerantz R, Cella D, Kristeller J, Salerno JW, Schneider RH. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of Transcendental Meditation on quality of life in older breast cancer patients. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2009 8(3):228-234 A randomized controlled trial examined effects of the TM technique on quality of life and mental well-being in 130 women with breast cancer (stages II to IV, average age 63.8 years). The study was supported by grants from the US National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine and the Retirement Research Foundation of Chicago. Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in women in Britain and USA, affecting eleven per cent of UK women, especially after age 50. Impairment of quality of life and psychological health affect both newly diagnosed and long-term survivors. Psychosocial health affect both newly diagnosed and long-term survivors. Psychosocial stress has been implicated as contributing to the onset, progression, and mortality from this disease. Patients were randomly assigned to learn TM or act as controls, following stratification to ensure that groups were well matched for age, stage of cancer, and timing of metastases in stage IV patients (spread of cancer to distant sites). All patients received standard medical care. Well-documented measures, including Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) and Short-Form 36 mental health scale, were administered 6 monthly over an average 18-month intervention period. Compared to controls, subjects practicing TM showed improvements in overall quality of life, emotional well-being, social well-being, and mental health.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension College Students | RCT | 2009

Nidich S, Rainforth M, Haaga D, Hagelin J, Salerno J, Travis F, Tanner M, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Schneider R. A randomized controlled trial on effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on blood pressure, psychological distress, and coping in young adults. American Journal of Hypertension 2009 22(12):1326-1331 A three month randomized control trial of 298 university students including 159 subjects at risk for hypertension, found significant systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure decreases for the at risk TM group of 5.0/2.8 mmHg compared with increases of 1.3/1.2 Hg for high risk control subjects. The TM group also showed significant improvements compared with control subjects in total psychological distress, anxiety, depression, anger/hostility and coping. Moreover reductions in psychological distress and coping significantly correlated with reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1731 | EEG | Improved Moral Reasoning | 1983

Nidich SI, Ryncarz RA, Abrams AI, Orme-Johnson DW, Wallace RK. Kohlbergian moral perspective responses, EEG coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Moral Education 1983 12(3):166-173 High frontal alpha EEG coherence was associated with a more unified perspective of life, as described by Kohlberg’s Stage 7, in subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. “Stage 7” presupposes a cosmic rather than a universal humanistic orientation.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg3004 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Increased hormone related to learning, memory | 1985

O’Halloran J, Jevning R, Wilson AF, Skowsky R, Walsh RN, Alexander CH. Hormonal control in a state of decreased activation: potentiation of arginine vasopressin secretion. Physiology and Behavior1985 35(4):591-595 During the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique, there was a dramatic increase in a hormone associated with body fluid balance as well as with learning and memory.

Health | Physiological | Efficiency & Stability | Stress Reduction | 1973

Orme-Johnson DW. Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine1973 35(4):341-349 Subjects practicing the TM technique showed greater stability in response to stress both in and out of meditation. Those who practice the Transcendental Meditation Programme show more stability of the autonomic nervous system, as indicated by less frequent spontaneous skin resistance fluctuations (greater time between fluctuations) and showed more rapid physiological recovery (measured by galvanic skin resistance) from the stress of a loud sound. A series of sounds was presented, and after fewer presentations the sound did not cause a stress response among this group.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg3042 | Health Care Utilization | Reduction in Health Care Costs | 1987

Orme-Johnson DW. Medical care utilization and the Transcendental Meditation program.Psychosomatic Medicine 1987 49(1):493-507 Research from the USA examined health-care utilization over five consecutive years among 2000 people practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique as compared to control groups (from a total sample of 600,000) who were closely comparable with regard to age, gender, occupation, and health insurance terms. Over the five-year period, the Transcendental Meditation participants consistently had fewer than half the number of doctor visits and days in the hospital compared to controls. Of considerable interest was the fact that the Transcendental Meditation group showed relatively little increase in need for health care with increasing age, whereas this trend was clearly seen in controls, as would usually be expected. Hospital admission rates for medical and surgical conditions were 60%-70% lower in the Transcendental Meditation group, with reductions in all 17 disease categories studied. For example, hospital admissions were 87% less for diseases of the heart and blood vessels, 55% less for tumors, 73% less for respiratory disorders, 87% less for neurological problems and 30% less for infections.

Health | Physiological | Health | Reduced Seizures | 2006

Orme-Johnson DW. Evidence that the Transcendental Meditation program prevents or decreases diseases of the nervous system and is specifically beneficial for epilepsy. Medical Hypotheses 2006 67:240-246 Although meditation has been practiced worldwide for centuries, there are no reports that it causes epilepsy or increases the predisposition to it. Medical care utilization statistics and clinical studies indicate that individuals who regularly practice the Transcendental Meditation technique have fewer problems of the nervous system and specifically show decreased symptoms of epilepsy. The frequency, amplitude, areas of activation, and effects of the EEG during the Transcendental Meditation technique are completely different from those of epilepsy. There is no evidence that the Transcendental Meditation technique increases glutamate, which has been associated with epilepsy. With regard to serotonin, the relationship of serotonin to epilepsy has to be viewed in the context of the abnormal brain tissue that causes epilepsy. The serotonin increases that may occur through meditation have been associated with only beneficial effects.

Health | Review Paper | Review of Research | Rebuttal to AHRQ Report on Meditation Research | 2008

Orme-Johnson DW. Commentary on the AHRQ report on research on meditation practices in health.The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2008 14(10):1215-1221The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) report is a major reference point for establishing where the research on meditation stands and where it should go from here. This commentary argues that double blinding, a major component of the report’s evaluation criteria, is not an appropriate control for placebo in meditation research. (Note: Double blinding is not possible in proving cigarettes are bad for your health and double blinding is also not possible with the practice of the TM technique, eg. you always know if you are smoking cigarettes and you always know when you have learned and are practicing the TM technique). A viable alternative is to make the treatment and control groups equivalent on nonspecific therapeutic attention factors and expectation. High quality meditation research must also use qualified instructors, have high compliance levels, insure proficient practice, use state-of-the-art measurement methodology, and make sure control subjects are not inadvertently practicing the same or another form of meditation. None of these determinants of research quality was assessed by the AHRQ report. It is noteworthy that whereas randomized controlled trials have their place in demonstrating clinical efficacy, few if any of the major ideas in the basic or behavioral sciences have come from randomized trails. A wide range of study designs have demonstrated that the traditional goal of meditation, a state of inner silence called “transcendental consciousness,” has unique physiological characteristics with far ranging implications for health, cognition, and behavior. Such studies need to be included in future reviews of meditation techniques. Serious Problems. Serious problems with the report were found by experts in the field who were invited to participate in the study process as peer reviewers. These problems were largely ignored by both the study authors and the study’s sponsors at AHRQ and NCCAM. Reviewers independently found the study had so many methodological flaws and mistakes that they recommended the report be withdrawn until it was corrected. Standard peer review, fact checking, and editors are usually effective at correcting misinformation. Unfortunately, these safeguards were not honored in this report, and misinformation is now positioned to guide public policy on the use of meditation techniques for healthcare. The peer reviewers pointed out that the study’s assessment of research quality was invalid because the study used inappropriate criteria for assessing research quality in the field of behavioral research. It did not heed the advice of reviewers and consultants to use correct criteria. It also omitted research in several important health areas such as tobacco and alcohol use, adolescents at risk for heart disease, and mortality. Moreover, it left out almost 100 studies on the TM technique from its review, although these had been provided to the reviewers in advance.

Health | Physiological | All Areas | Rebuttal of Critique of Meditation Research | 2005

Orme-Johnson, DW, Alexander, CN, Hawkins MA. Critique of the National Research Council’s report on meditation. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):383-414 This paper is a reply to two highly influential reviews of meditation research prepared by a National Research Council (NRC) committee that appeared in two books issued by the National Science Foundation. Three arguments are made (a) While the NRC report concludes that the physiological effects of meditation are not different from ordinary forms of rest, the evidence is strong that one meditation technique in particular, the Transcendental Meditation technique (TM), produces somatic and EEG effects that are indeed distinct from ordinary rest or stages of sleep and dreaming; (b) whereas the NRC report concludes that meditation does not improve the ability to cope with stressors, there is strong consistent evidence that practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique produces greater relaxation outside of meditation outside of meditation, faster recovery from stressors, and reductions in hypertension, biological aging, sickness rates, substance abuse and other manifestations of stress; (c) contrary to the NRC report conclusions, many studies show that practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique enhances human performance on perceptual motor, cognitive, and intellectual tasks. This paper documents the fact that crucial evidence was not used by the NRC for reasons that appear to be both extra-scientific and just poor science. We recommend that future national review committees of technologies originating in non-Western cultures include professionals well informed in the practice, theory and research of the technologies under review.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Cardiac Events | 2011

Orme-Johnson DW, Barnes VA, Schneider RH. Transcendental Meditation for the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease. In: R Allan, J Fisher (eds), Heart & Mind: the Practice of Cardiac Psychology (2nd edition). Washington DC: American Psychological Association 2011 The Transcendental Meditation Technique with a 47% reduction in cardiac events proves as powerful as any new class of heart disease medications entering the market. Statin drugs taken to reduce cholesterol levels only lessen the risks of heart disease by 30 to 40 percent relative to existing treatments. Common blood pressure drugs reduce these outcomes by only 25 to 30 percent.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1687 | EEG | TC TM-Sidhi Increased Alpha Coherence Increased Creativity | 1981

Orme-Johnson DW, Haynes CT. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience 1981 13(4):211-217 Subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program with clear experiences of pure consciousness were found to have higher EEG alpha coherence and higher creativity than subjects with less clear experiences.

Health | Physiological | Health Care Utilization | Reduction in Health Care Costs | 1997

Orme-Johnson DW, Herron R. An innovative approach to reducing medical care utilization and expenditures. American Journal of Managed Care 1997 3(1):135-144 This study showed a 57 per cent reduction in medical expenditure in subjects practicing the TM technique and other aspects of Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health (N=693). This study of Blue Cross statistics compared utilization rates for the employees of an academic institution in Iowa practiced the TM technique and other aspects of Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health with 12 other small private colleges in Iowa for 4 years (M aggregated group size=4,148) and with Blue Cross norms (N=600,000). The mean hospital admission rates per 1,000 for cardiovascular disease over the 4 year period were 8.4 for the norm, 8.7 for other colleges, and 0.66 for the TM group, a 92% difference.

Health | Physiological | Health | Pain Relieving and Anti-Anxiety | 2006

Orme-Johnson DW, Schneider RH, Son YD, Nidich S, Cho Z-H. Neuroimaging of meditation’s effect on brain reactivity to pain. NeuroReport 2006 17(12):1359-1363 Twelve healthy long-term meditators who had been practicing Transcendental Meditation for 30 years showed a 40-50% lower brain response to pain compared to 12 healthy controls. Further, when the 12 controls then learned and practiced Transcendental Meditation for 5 months, their brain responses to pain also decreased by a comparable 40-50%. Transcendental Meditation could reduce the brain’s response to pain because neuroimaging and autonomic studies indicate that it produces a physiological state capable of modifying various kinds of pain. In time it reduces trait anxiety, improves stress reactivity and decreases distress from acute pain. According to Orme-Johnson, lead author of this research, “Prior research indicates that Transcendental Meditation creates a more balanced outlook on life and greater equanimity in reacting to stress. This study suggests that this is not just an attitudinal change, but a fundamental change in how the brain functions”.

Health | Psychological | Health | Reduced Stress: Comparing Techniques | 1998

Orme-Johnson DW, Walton KG. All approaches to preventing and reversing the effects of stress are not the same. American Journal of Health Promotion 1998 12(5):297-299 Scientific research now clearly shows that different procedures of meditation and relaxation often have very different effects on specific variables. Such differences should not be unexpected, given the differences between the procedures themselves. Compare, for example, respiration research on procedures that focus on breathing and procedures that ignore it, and stress-level research on procedures that require effort and concentration and procedures that emphasize effortlessness. The error of lumping together all meditation procedures has often led to two opposing mistakes about the significance of the research itself. The first, sometimes made by supporters of the idea of meditation in general, is to conclude that significant results found to be produced by a particular procedure can simply be assumed to follow from other procedures as well. This is unreasonably optimistic. The second is to combine the conflicting research on different procedures, find no consistent results, and conclude that “meditation” (considered generically) has no effects at all. This mistake is in turn unreasonably pessimistic. Scientifically, the proper thing to do is to note that different procedures might well be expected to produce different results with regard to different variables (respiration, stress levels, EEG, etc.) and thus ought to be evaluated individually. Randomized controlled trials have shown that, compared to other forms of meditation, relaxation, and health promotion, the Transcendental Meditation program decreases blood pressure, increases longevity and cognitive flexibility in the elderly, decreases arterial sclerosis, decreases post-traumatic stress syndrome and anxiety, and increases intelligence, creativity, field independence, practical intelligence, and speed of cognitive processing. Meta-analyses are an objective means of drawing conclusions about an entire field of research, including all the studies said to show negative as well as positive results. Meta-analyses have found that the Transcendental Meditation program is superior to ordinary rest; that it is more effective in reducing anxiety than other meditation and relaxation techniques; more effective in increasing self actualization than other meditation and relaxation techniques; and more effective in reducing drug abuse, alcohol abuse, and cigarette use than other standard treatments. All these changes can be seen to result from the state of relaxation and coherence that the Transcendental Meditation program specifically produces.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1850 | Health | Decreased Psychosomatic Complaints Increased Emotional Stability | 1982

Overbeck K-D. Auswirkungen der Technik der Transzendentalen Meditation (TM) auf die psychische und psychosomatische Befindlichkeit. Psychotherapie-Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie1982 32(6):188-192 After four to six months of regular practice of the TM technique subjects showed decreases in psychosomatic complaints, musculoskeletal complaints, oversensitivity and in limitations caused by physical and general ailments when compared to a non-meditating control group. Increases in efficiency and emotional stability were also seen. The improvement in these parameters were associated with the experience of inner harmony during the TM technique.

Health | Psychological CPVol 2 Pg1012 | Intelligence, Learning & Academic Achievement | Improved Right Hemispheric functioning | 1977

Pagano RR, Frumkin LR. The effects of Transcendental Meditation on right hemispheric functioning.
Biofeedback and Self-Regulation 1977 2(4):407-415
Experienced meditators showed superior right hemispheric functioning compared to non-meditators and inexperienced meditators.

Health | Physiological | Health Physiological Stability | Metabolic Syndrome | RCT | 2006

Paul-Labrador M, Polk D, Dwyer JH, Velasquez I, Nidich SI, Rainforth M, Schneider RH, Bairey Merz CN. Effects of a randomized controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006 166(11):1218-1224 This 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 103 coronary heart patients found that the Transcendental Meditation technique improved blood pressure and insulin resistance components of the metabolic syndrome, (associated with many major disorders of modern society including coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension) as well as cardiac autonomic nervous system tone compared with a control group receiving health education. These results suggest that the TM technique may modulate the physiological response to stress and improve coronary heart disease risk factors. Stress hormones such as cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenalin aggravate insulin and glucose levels. Reducing these neurohormones through the Transcendental Meditation technique helps to balance glucose and insulin in the blood. This helps to normalize metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Full Article The American Medical Association was so impressed by the research showing that TM was the only technology documented in medical literature to be able to address all three components of the “metabolic syndrome”, that they issued a press release which resulted in thousands of articles world-wide.

Health | Physiological CP Vol I Pg 335 | Motor & Perceptual | Field Independence | RCT | 1974

Pelletier KR. Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon autokinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1974 39(7):1031-1034 Subjects practicing the TM technique showed increased field independence, which reflects improved pattern recognition and increased accuracy of perceptual judgement.

Health | Physiological | EEG | Increased Amplitude of Cortical and Brain Stem Responses to Somatosensory Stimuli | 1993

Petrenko EV, Orlova TV, Lyubimov NN. Cerebral control of afferent somatosensory projections.Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 1993 116(3):1046-1048. (Translated from Byulleten’ Eksperimental’noi Biologii i Meditsiny 1993 116:229-231) This study reports increased amplitude of cortical and brain stem responses to somatosensory stimuli during the Transcendental Meditation technique in comparison to the control period prior to practice. Investigation into the neuronal mechanisms of TM showed contrasting functional changes in forebrain and spinal cord structures during TM. An increase of spectral power of electrical activity in alpha- and theta-frequency ranges take place in parietal and somatosensory forebrain structures, which reflects an increased activation of these structures. Comparing the data with the literature and analyzing their functional significance, we can conclude that a functional mobilization of a whole spectrum of cerebral descending coordinating influences to the back parts of the brain stem and the spinal cord takes place during TM. Activation of structures playing the central role in intellectual activity, particularly the parietal and frontal cortex, takes place as a result of this highly selective process. In the spinal cord structures, activation of inhibitory elements during TM is followed by inhibition of motor neurons and consequent muscle relaxation.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | Meta | 2007

Rainforth MV, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, Salerno JW, Anderson JW. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports 2007 9(6):520-528 This meta-analysis of 17 published studies from the medical literature (selected from over 100 published studies for their careful experimental design utilizing randomized controlled trials) reported on the effects of stress reduction techniques on elevated blood pressure in about 1000 subjects total. The treatments employed included simple biofeedback, relaxation-assisted biofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation, stress management training, and the Transcendental Meditation program. The results of statistical analyses showed that none of the first 4 treatment approaches demonstrated statistically significant reductions in elevated blood pressure, while the Transcendental Meditation program showed both significant clinical and statistical reductions in blood pressure. by 5.0/2.8 mmHg. Blood pressure reductions of this magnitude are suggested to result in significant reductions in cardiovascular disease risk. (Staesson et al., 2004) Full Article This meta-analysis evaluated high quality studies, that used active controls, adequate baseline measurement and blinded blood pressure assessment. Meta-analysis was used to calculate blood pressure changes.

Health | Review Paper CP Vol4 Pg2854 | Health | Perfect Health | 1983

Rasmussen SG, Jensen MR, Rodenberg J. Præsentation af en sundhedsmodel. Ugeskrift for Lœger1983 145:1900-1902 This paper presents the Transcendental Meditation program as the means for developing a state of perfect health, thereby bringing fulfillment to the medical sciences.

Health | Psychological | Dev of Personality Productivity Quality of Life | Military Training | 2011

Rees B. Overview of outcome data of potential meditation training for soldier resilience. Military Medicine 2011 176(11):1232-1242

Health | Psychological: | Rehabilitation | PTSD | 2011

Rosenthal JZ, Grosswald S, Ross R, Rosenthal N. Effects of Transcendental Meditation in veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study. Military Medicine 2011 176(6):626–630 We conducted an uncontrolled pilot study to determine whether transcendental meditation (TM) might be helpful in treating veterans from Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results of this small, uncontrolled pilot study found that TM may have helped to alleviate symptoms of PTSD and improve quality of life in veterans of OEF/OIF with combat-related PTSD. Based on the weekly compliance checks, instructors also found that TM was easy to perform and well accepted by the subjects. Five veterans were trained in the technique and followed for 12 weeks. All subjects improved on the primary outcome measure, the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (mean change score, 31.4; p = 0.02; df = 4). Significant improvements were also observed for 3 secondary outcome measures: Clinician’s Global Inventory- Severity (mean change score, 1.60; p < 0.04; df = 4), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (mean change score, −13.00; p < 0.01; df = 4), and the PTSD Checklist—Military Version (mean change score, 24.00; p < 0.02; df = 4). TM may have helped to alleviate symptoms of PTSD and improve quality of life in this small group of veterans. Larger, placebo-controlled studies should be undertaken to further determine the efficacy of TM in this population.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Stress | 2005

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Salerno J, Rainforth M, Nidich S. Stress reduction in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in high risk underserved populations: a review of controlled research on the Transcendental Meditation program. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):159-180 This is a literature review of the effects of stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation program on health outcomes related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence is presented, primarily from randomized clinical trials, and meta-analyses to demonstrate that the Transcendental Meditation technique is both an efficacious and cost-effective behavioral stress reduction strategy in reducing CVD risk factors, events, and their underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. This research review suggests that the Transcendental Meditation program may be an optimum candidate for the prevention and treatment of CVD. Moreover, the TM program has been associated with relatively high compliance and cultural acceptability over the long term in a wide diversity of participant populations ranging from low socio-economic status urban African Americans to the elderly.

Health | Physiological | Health | Disease Prevention Aging | 2002

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Salerno JW, Robinson Jr DK, Fields JZ, Nidich SI. Disease prevention and health promotion in the aging with a traditional system of natural medicine: Maharishi Vedic Medicine. Journal of Aging and Health 2002 14(1):57-78 This review focuses on a comprehensive, sophisticated system of natural medicine that appears to hold promise for prevention of chronic diseases and disabilities, loss of independence, suffering, and health care costs often associated with “usual” aging. Methods: The authors discuss the negative impact of usual aging on our society, with its rapidly growing percentage of elderly, and the challenge of promoting “successful aging.” Emphasis is given to research literature suggesting that Maharishi Vedic Medicine (MVM) is particularly effective in retarding usual aging. Results: Proposed mechanisms for the anti-aging effects of MVM include reductions in physiological and psychological stress and enhancement of homeostatic and self-repair processes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that this set of innovative strategies may help society achieve recommended health objectives for disease prevention and health promotion in older adults and that widespread implementation of this self-empowering, prevention-oriented approach in the elderly is feasible, cost effective, and timely.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | RCT | 2005

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Orme-Johnson D, Rainforth M, Salerno J, Sheppard W, Castillo-Richmond A, Barnes VA, Nidich SI. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in African Americans treated for hypertension for over one year. American Journal of Hypertension2005 18(1):88-98 Psychosocial stress has been implicated in the disproportionately higher rates of hypertension among African Americans. This randomized controlled trial compared the effects of two stress reduction techniques and a health education control program on hypertension during a period of 1 year in African-American men and women (N = 150, mean age 49 plus or minus 10 years, mean blood pressure (BP) = 142/95 mm Hg) at an urban community health center.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Decreased Mortality | RCT | 2005

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Staggers F, Rainforth M, Salerno JW, Hartz A, Arndt S, Barnes VA, Nidich SI. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons >/=55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 2005 95(9):1060-1064 A pooled analysis of the results from two randomized trials of the TM technique in subjects with high blood pressure (Alexander et al., 1989; Schneider et al., 1995) used meta-analysis of individual patient data (N=202) to compute mortality risk. At a mean follow-up of 7.6 + or – 3.5 years, the TM group showed a 30% decrease in the rate of cardiovascular mortality and 23% risk reduction for all cause mortality. The relative risk for cardiovascular disease (risk of the experimental group divided by the control group was .70 (p=.05), and the relative risk of all cause mortality was .77 (p=.04)

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg4239 | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 1992

Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Wallace RK. In search of an optimal behavioral treatment for hypertension: a review and focus on Transcendental Meditation. In EH Johnson et al. (eds),Personality, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Essential Hypertension (pp.291-312). Washington DC: Hemisphere Publishing, 1992 A review of research on hypertension concluded that the TM technique provides an optimal non-pharmacological treatment and preventative program for high blood pressure, because the technique produces rapid clinically significant blood pressure reductions; is distinctly more effective than other meditation and relaxation procedures; is continued by a high percentage of subjects (in contrast to lower continuation rates for relaxation techniques and the frequent problem of poor compliance with anti-hypertensive drugs); has documented acceptability and effectiveness in a wide range of populations; is effective in reducing high blood pressure in real life environments outside the clinic; is free from harmful side effects or adverse reactions; reduces other cardiovascular risk factors and improves health in a general way.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | 48% Risk Reduction in Mortality, Heart Attacks, Strokes | RCT | 2012

Robert H. Schneider MD, FACC, Clarence E. Grim MD, Maxwell V. Rainforth PhD, Theodore Kotchen MD, Sanford I. Nidich EdD, Carolyn Gaylord-King PhD, John W. Salerno PhD, Jane Morley Kotchen MD, MPH, Charles N. Alexander, PhD Stress Reduction in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Transcendental Meditation and Health Education in African Americans. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, in press  In this trial, the TM program was associated with 48% risk reduction in the composite of mortality, nonfatal MI, and nonfatal stroke in African American men and women with CHD over an average of 5.4 years follow-up. These results were confirmed by independent data analysis. Concurrently, there were improvements in BP and psychosocial distress factors, particularly anger. Regularity of TM practice was associated with increased survival. A selected mind-body intervention, the Transcendental Meditation program, significantly reduced risk for mortality, myocardial infarction and stroke in CHD patients. These changes were associated with lower BP and psychosocial stress factors. Therefore, this practice may be clinically useful in the secondary prevention of CVD. This was a randomized controlled trial of 201 African American men and women with coronary heart disease (CHD) who were randomized to the TM program or health education. The primary end point was the composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary endpoints included the composite of cardiovascular mortality, revascularizations, and cardiovascular hospitalizations; blood pressure (BP); psychosocial stress factors; and lifestyle behaviors.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | RCT | 2001

Schneider RH, Castillo-Richmond A, Alexander CN, Myers H, Kaushik V, Aranguri C, HYPERLINK “http://www.labmeeting.com/papers/author/norris-k” Norris K, HYPERLINK “http://www.labmeeting.com/papers/author/haney-c” Haney C, HYPERLINK “http://www.labmeeting.com/papers/author/rainforth-m” Rainforth M, HYPERLINK “http://www.labmeeting.com/papers/author/calderon-r” Calderon R, HYPERLINK “http://www.labmeeting.com/papers/author/nidich-s” Nidich S. Behavioral treatment of hypertensive heart disease in African Americans: rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial. Behavioral Medicine 2001 27(2):83-95 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Decreased Mortality | 2001

Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Salerno JW. The Transcendental Meditation program: reducing the risk of heart disease and mortality and improving quality of life in African Americans. Ethnicity and Disease2001 11:159-160 This study supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Lower Lipid-Peroxides | 1998

Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Salerno JW, Sharma HM, Robinson CE, Nidich RJ, Alexander CN. Lower lipid peroxide levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine1998 60(1):38-41 The findings of this exploratory study suggest that lower plasma levels of lipid peroxides in a community-dwelling sample of matched older adults are associated with practice of the TM technique. If confirmed, this may provide a mechanism for reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and improvements in other age-related parameters previously reported in TM practitioners in addition to previously suggested mechanisms.

Health | Physiological | Health | Elderly Alternative Medicine | 2003

Schneider RH, Salerno J, Nidich SI. Future trends in use: focus on a traditional system of natural medicine. In N Cherniack, P Cherniack (eds), Alternative Medicine for the Elderly (pp. 73-87). New York: Springer-Verlag, 2003 It has been reported that older patients reasons for seeking CAM therapies include health promotion and disease prevention, disillusionment with conventional therapies with their adverse side effects and high costs, ineffectiveness of conventional medicine to relieve their chronic condition, no emotional or spiritual benefit (i.e lack of holism, treating the whole person – mind, body and spirit – and treating the root causes not just alleviating symptoms. This present overview suggests the potential for a recently revived, traditional and most comprehensive approach to natural medicine to respond to and fulfill the perceived healthcare needs of our ever-rowing elderly population in the US. Given the considerable social, political and economic burden that our older population have now begun to exert on our fragile healthcare system as we enter the new millennium, the implications of establishing and integrating such a promising healthcare system in the US with our current conventional system appears timely, highly pertinent and worthy of widespread implementation.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3859 | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | RCT | 1995

Schneider RH, Staggers F, Alexander CN, Sheppard W, Rainforth M, Kondwani K, Smith S, King CG. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension 1995 26(5):820-827 More Ideal Levels of Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Subjects: Reduction of High Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure. The Transcendental Meditation technique produced reductions in systolic and diastolic pressure comparable to those commonly found with anti-hypertensive medication, but without any adverse side effects.  A risk sub-group analysis study of older hypertensive African Americans (55 years and older median age was 66.6 + or – 7.3 years) found that TM practice reduced systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure for both sexes and for subjects high and low on several measures of hypertension risk. This study found that the Transcendental Meditation program reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure among all subgroups of hypertensive patients – both men and women and both high and low psychosocial stress subjects in contrast to control subjects. Those participating in the Transcendental Meditation program irrespective of their subgroup on five other risk measures for high blood pressure – obesity, alcohol use, physical inactivity, dietary sodium-potassium intake, and an overall index of all risk factors – also showed reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in comparison to control subjects.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Decreased Congestive Heart Failure Symptoms | RCT | 2006

Schneider RH, Walton KG, Salerno JW, Nidich SI. Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion with the Transcendental Meditation program and Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care. Ethnicity & Disease 2006 16(3) Supplement 4:15-26 This study examined the effects of conventional health education and the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique on measures of heart failure severity and quality of life in a randomized controlled trial of twenty-three older African American men and women with congestive heart failure (CHF). The results indicate that the use of the TM technique may be effective in improving the quality of life and functional capacity of heart failure patients.

Health | Physiological | Health | Chronic Disorders Improved Quality of Life & Mental Health | 2001

Scurfield L. Transcendental Meditation. Australian Family Physician 2001 30:735-736 This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in improving quality of life and mental health in patients with chronic disorders.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1823 | Health | Better Periodontal Health | 1979

Seiler G, Seiler V. The effects of Transcendental Meditation on periodontal tissue. Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine 1979 26(1):8-12 Evidence that subjects practicing the TM technique have better periodontal health.

Health | Physiological | Health | Maharishi Ayurveda | 1996

Sharma HM, Alexander CN. Maharishi Ayur-Veda research review. Part 1: Transcendental Meditation.
Complementary Medicine International 1996 3:21-28.
TM has been investigated in conjunction with other aspects of a natural comprehensive health program.- Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health.

Health | Physiological | Health | Maharishi Ayurveda | 1998

Sharma HM, Clark C. Contemporary Ayurveda: Medicine and Research in Maharishi Ayur-Veda. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingston, 1998 Ayurveda is one of the world’s oldest and most comprehensive systems of natural medicine, and is particularly useful for addressing the chronic conditions Western medicine finds difficult to treat. This authoritative book provides a comprehensive introduction to Ayurvedic medicine for the practitioner or student. The authors describe the foundations and principles of Maharishi Ayurveda in detail, and drawing on the latest scientific research into its efficacy show what it can offer clinical medicine in the West. Topics covered include pathogenesis and diagnosis, diet and digestion, toxic build-up, purification therapies, the effects of the emotions on thinking and health, and the practical applications of Transcendental Meditation. This updated and expanded second edition describes specific Ayurvedic treatments for a range of common medical conditions, and also contains information on more general Vedic approaches to health and well-being. This book will provide complementary and alternative health practitioners with a solid base on which to build their understanding of Maharishi Ayurveda, and will also be of interest to mainstream health professionals wishing to learn more about the efficacy of this ancient healthcare system.

Health | Physiological | Health | Stress Reduction | 1990

Shaw RM, Dettmar DM. Monitoring behavioral stress control using a craniomandibular index.
Australian Dental Journal 1990 35(2):147–151
This study was concerned with the practical value of relaxation training in helping an individual reduce anxiety and its physical manifestations. Twenty-five subjects learned and practiced Transcendental Meditation for a period of three months. Subjects were clinically examined before and after meditation training, and a craniomandibular index (CMI) was used to objectively assess criteria pertaining to mandibular function. Baseline and outcome CMI scores were compared for the group and shown to be significantly different. Deep relaxation achieved through Transcendental Meditation alleviated intramuscular tension and fatigue, promoting balanced, coordinated muscle function.

Health | Physiological | Health | Aging; Younger Biological Age | 1997

Smith D, Dillbeck MC, Sharma HM. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and Transcendental Meditation.
Alternative Therapies in Clinical Practice 1997 4(2):35-37
Subjects practicing the TM technique have been found to have lower erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) and a higher frequency of zero ESR compared to controls. Increased ESR correlates with aging and is a well established indicator of disease.

Health | Review CPVol 2 Pg1215 | Health | Review of Improved Physiological Functioning | 1977

Stutz E. Transzendentale Meditation in der Medizin. Medizinische Klinik 1977 72(20):905-908 The benefits of the TM technique for physiological functioning are reviewed and their value in clinical medicine is emphasized.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1598 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Less Aggressive Behavior in Patients with Aggressive Behavior; Decreased Seizures in Epileptic Patients, Improved Cognitive Functioning in Mentally Retarded | 1980

Subrahmanyam S, Porkodi K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1980 1:73-88 Levels of catecholamine and steroid metabolites, plasma cortisol, and serum cholesterol were found to decrease over a six-month period of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Furthermore, normalization of neurotransmitter metabolite levels, plasma cortisol levels, and EEG features was found to occur as a result of the Transcendental Meditation technique in patients with aggressive behavior, moderate mental retardation, or epilepsy. Considerable clinical improvement was observed in all patients under study: bouts of aggressive behavior were reduced in frequency and severity in aggressive patients; IQ and general cognitive functioning improved in mentally retarded subjects; and the frequency and severity of epileptic seizures were reduced in epileptic patients. It is concluded that the Transcendental Meditation technique has both a beneficial effect on general health and therapeutic value in specific conditions.

Health | Review CPVol 2 Pg1213 | Health | Benefits for Patient & Doctor | 1976

Toane EB. The Transcendental Meditation program. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1976 114(12):1095-1096 Benefits of the TM program for the patient and the doctor.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Improved Hormonal Functioning: Well Being | 2000

Tooley GA, Armstrong SM, Norman TR, Sali A. Acute increases in night-time plasma melatonin levels following a period of meditation. Biological Psychology 2000 53(1):69-78 To determine whether a period of meditation could influence melatonin levels, two groups of meditators were tested in a repeated measures design for changes in plasma melatonin levels at midnight. Experienced meditators practicing either TM-Sidhi or another internationally well known form of yoga showed significantly higher plasma melatonin levels in the period immediately following meditation compared with the same period at the same time on a control night. It is concluded that meditation, at least in the two forms studied here, can affect plasma melatonin levels. It remains to be determined whether this is achieved through decreased hepatic metabolism of the hormone or via a direct effect on pineal physiology. Either way, facilitation of higher physiological melatonin levels at appropriate times of day might be on avenue through which the claimed health promoting effects of meditation occur.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3823 | EEG | P.C. Junction Point Waking Dreaming and Sleeping | 1994

Travis FT. The junction point model: a field model of waking, sleeping, and dreaming relating dream witnessing, the waking/sleeping transition, and Transcendental Meditation in terms of a common psychophysiologic state. Dreaming 1994 4(2):91-104 Indication of Pure Consciousness at the Transition Between Waking, Sleeping and Dreaming: Increased EEG Theta/Alpha Power. Participants in the Transcendental Meditation Program showed high theta/alpha EEG power, which is characteristic of the experience of Transcendental Consciousness, during night sleep in the transition periods between waking, dreaming and deep sleep.

Health | Physiological | EEG | TC+ Cosmic Consciousness | 2006

Travis FT, Arenander A. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on inter-hemispheric frontal asymmetry and frontal coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 2006 116(12):1519-38 Alternation of pure consciousness with activity integrates inner meditation experiences with waking, dreaming and sleeping. This is the first stabilized state of enlightenment, Turyatit Chetana, in the Vedic Tradition. This research extends and confirms recent brainwave findings that distinguished an individual’s sense-of-self along an Object-referral/Self-referral Continuum of self-awareness. Subjects were interviewed and were given tests measuring inner/outer orientation, moral reasoning, anxiety, and personality. Scores on the psychological tests were factor analyzed. The first unrotated PCA component of the test scores yielded a “Consciousness Factor,” analogous to the intelligence “g” factor, which accounted for over half of the variance among groups. Analysis of unstructured interviews of these subjects revealed fundamentally different descriptions of self-awareness. Individuals who described themselves in terms of concrete cognitive and behavioral processes (predominantly Object-referral mode) exhibited lower Consciousness Factor scores, lower frontal EEG coherence, lower alpha and higher gamma power during tasks, and less efficient cortical preparatory responses (contingent negative variation). In contrast, individuals who described themselves in terms of an abstract, independent sense-of-self underlying thought, feeling and action (predominantly Self-referral mode) exhibited higher Consciousness Factor scores, higher frontal coherence, higher alpha and lower gamma power during tasks, and more efficient cortical responses. These data suggest that definable states of brain activity and subjective experiences exist, in addition to waking, sleeping and dreaming, that may be operationally defined by psychological and physiological measures along a continuum of Object-referral/Self-referral Continuum of self-awareness.

Health | Physiological | Athletic Performance | Exercise without Strain | 1996

Travis FT, Blasdell K, Liptak R, Zisman S, Daley K, Douillard J. Invincible Athletics program: aerobic exercise and performance without strain. International Journal of Neuroscience 1996 85(3/4):301-308This study compared physiologic patterns during conventional aerobic exercise to those during Invincible Athletics – a program including the TM technique and emphasizing balance and comfort during exercise to increase strength, endurance and mind-body coordination gradually without the negative effects of the stress/recovery cycle. While heart rates were similar during both workouts, during Invincible Athletics (1) perceived comfort tended to be higher and perceived exertion tended to be lower (2) breath rates were significantly lower; (3) respiratory sinus arrhythmia and central-parietal alpha relative power were significantly higher and (4) endurance was significantly longer. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreases with physiologic and mental stress. Heightened respiratory sinus arrhythmia and EEG alpha relative power along with subjective reports of greater comfort, less exertion and less observed increased endurance suggest that during Invincible athletics, athletes may be more easily adapting to demands made upon them.

Health | Psychological | Cognitive | ADHD | RCT | 2011

Travis F, Grosswald S, Stixrud W. ADHD, brain functioning, and Transcendental Meditation practice. Mind & Brain, The Journal of Psychiatry 2011 2(1):73-81 This study suggests practicing transcendental meditation (TM) improves brain function and reduces symptoms among students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3807 | EEG | Yogic Flying | 1990

Travis FT, Orme-Johnson DW. EEG coherence and power during Yogic Flying: investigating the mechanics of the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 1990 54(1/2):1-12Increased EEG Coherence and Power Immediately before the Body Lifted up during TM-Sidhi Yogic Flying. Individuals practicing the Yogic Flying aspect of the Transcendental Meditation TM-Sidhi program in contrast to controls who approximated the physical movements of the practice, showed increased broad band EEG coherence and increased 30-32 Hz power, during the period immediately before the body lifted from the ground.

Health | Physiological | EEG | TC | 2000

Travis FT, Pearson C. Pure consciousness: distinct phenomenological and physiological correlates of ‘Consciousness Itself’. International Journal of Neuroscience 2000 100(1-4):77-89 This paper explores subjective reports and physiological correlates of the experience of “consciousness itself”—self awareness isolated from the processes and objects of experience during meditation practice. Subjectively, this state is characterized by the absence of the very framework (time, space, and body sense) and content (qualities of inner and outer perception) that define waking experiences. Physiologically, this state is distinguished by the presence of apneustic breathing, autonomic orienting at the onset of breath changes, and increases in the frequency of peak EEG power. A model, called the junction point model, is presented that integrates pure consciousness with waking, dreaming, or sleeping. It could provide a structure to generate a coherent program of research to test the full range of consciousness and so enable us to understand what it means to be fully human. This is the state of pure consciousness is the state of Yoga defined by Patanjali in the Yoga sutras as “the settled state of the mind.”

Health | Physiological | EEG | Comparing Techniques | 2010

Travis F, Shear J. Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions. Consciousness and Cognition 2010 19(4):1110-1118 Meditation procedures explore inner subjectivity and the range of conscious content. Meditation procedures in the Automatic Self-transcending category leads to the state of pure consciousness experienced when content is still and wakefulness remains. This paper proposes a third meditation-category—automatic self-transcending— to extend the dichotomy of focused attention and open monitoring proposed by Lutz. Automatic self-transcending includes techniques designed to transcend their own activity. This contrasts with focused attention, which keeps attention focused on an object; and open monitoring, which keeps attention involved in the monitoring process. Each category was assigned EEG bands, based on reported brain patterns during mental tasks, and meditations were categorized based on their reported EEG. Focused attention, characterized by beta/gamma activity, included meditations from Tibetan Buddhist, Buddhist, and Chinese traditions. Open monitoring, characterized by theta activity, included meditations from Buddhist, Chinese, and Vedic traditions. Automatic self-transcending, characterized by alpha1 activity, included meditations from Vedic and Chinese traditions. Between categories, the included meditations differed in focus, subject/object relation, and procedures. These findings shed light on the common mistake of averaging meditations together to determine mechanisms or clinical effects.

Health | Physiological | EEG | Improved Reaction Time | 1998

Travis FT, Tecce JJ. Effects of distracting stimuli on CNV amplitude and reaction time. International Journal of Psychophysiology 1998 31(1):45-50 The present study investigated the reliability of CNV (contingent negative variation), distraction and rebound effects, and their relation with reaction time. Twenty-four subjects were presented three blocks of trials: (1) a control block a fixed fore-period reaction time task consisting of a flash-tone key press sequence; (2) a divided-attention block randomly intermixed trials with and without a short-term memory task (three visually-presented letters) in the S1S2 interval (50% of each) and (3) a second control block. In trials with the short-term memory task, subjects recalled the letters after the key press to the tone. Compared to the control block, CNV amplitudes during trials with letters were significantly smaller and reaction times to S2 were significantly slower (distraction effect). In contrast, CNV amplitudes during trials with no-letters were significantly larger (CNV rebound), but the reaction times were again significantly slower. This dissociation of CNV rebound and reaction time could provide an objective neurophysiological tool to probe attention functions in both normal and clinical populations.

Health | Physiological | EEG | TC | 2001

Travis FT, Tecce JJ, Guttman J. Cortical plasticity, contingent negative variation, and transcendent experiences during practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Biological Psychology 2001 55(1):41-55 This study investigated effects of transcendent experiences on contingent negative variation (CNV) amplitude, CNV rebound, and distraction effects. Three groups of age-matched subjects with few (<1 per year), more frequent (10-20 per year), or daily self reported transcendent experiences received 31 simple RT trials (flash (S1)/tone (S2) /button press) followed by 31 divided attention trials – randomly intermixed trials with or without a three letter memory task in the S1-S2 interval). Late CNV amplitudes in the simple trials were smallest in the group with fewest, and largest in the group with most frequent transcendent experiences. Conversely, CNV distraction effect were largest in the group with fewest and smallest in the group with the most frequent transcendent experiences, (the second group’s value was in the middle in each case.) These data suggest cumulative effects of transcendent experiences on cortical preparatory response (heightened CNV amplitude in simple trials) and executive functioning (diminished distraction effects in letter trials).

Health | Physiological | Health: Respiration | TC Respiratory Suspension | 1997

Travis FT, Wallace RK. Autonomic patterns during respiratory suspensions: possible markers of Transcendental Consciousness. Psychophysiology 1997 34(1):39-46 In two experiments, we investigated physiological correlates of transcendental consciousness during Transcendental Meditation technique sessions. In the first, experimenter initiated bells, based on observed physiological patterns marked three phases during a Transcendental Meditation session in 16 individuals. Inter-rater reliability between participant and experimenter classification of experiences at each bell was quite good. During phases including transcendental consciousness experiences, skin conductance responses and heart rate deceleration occurred at the onset of respiratory suspensions or reductions in breath volume. In the second experiment this autonomic pattern was compared with that during forced breath holding. Phasic autonomic activity was significantly higher at respiratory suspensions onset than at breath holding onset. These easily measured markers could help focus research on the existence and characteristics of transcendental consciousness.

Health | Physiological | EEG | Unique State of Rest Difference Between TM and Rest | RCT | 1999

Travis FT, Wallace RK. Autonomic and EEG patterns during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice: a basis for a neural model of TM practice. Consciousness and Cognition1999 8(3):302-18 In this single-blind within-subject study, autonomic and EEG variables were compared during 10-min, order-balanced eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation (TM) sessions. TM sessions were distinguished by (1) lower breath rates, (2) lower skin conductance levels, (3) higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia levels, and (4) higher alpha anterior–posterior and frontal EEG coherence. Alpha power was not significantly different between conditions. These results were seen in the first minute and were maintained throughout the 10- min sessions. TM practice appears to (1) lead to a state fundamentally different than eyes-closed rest; (2) result in a cascade of events in the central and autonomic nervous systems, leading to a rapid change in state (within a minute) that was maintained throughout the TM session; and (3) be best distinguished from other conditions through autonomic and EEG alpha coherence patterns rather than alpha power. Two neural networks that may mediate these effects are suggested. The rapid shift in physiological functioning within the first minute might be mediated by a ‘‘neural switch’’ in prefrontal areas inhibiting activity in specific and nonspecific thalamocortical circuits. The resulting ‘‘restfully alert’’ state might be sustained by a basal ganglia–corticothalamic threshold regulation mechanism automatically maintaining lower levels of cortical excitability.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Reduction in Free Radicals | 2006

Van Wijk EP, Koch H, Bosman S, Van Wijk R. Anatomical characterization of human ultraweak photon emission in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation and control subjects. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2006 12(1):31-38 Spectral analysis of human ultra-weak photon emission has suggested that ultra-weak emission is probably, at least in part, a reflection of free radical reactions in a living system. The data demonstrates emission intensities that are lower in TM practitioners as compared to control subjects. Data support the hypothesis that free radical reactions can be influenced by TM.

Health | Physiological | Metabolic & Biochemical | Reduction in Free Radicals, Comparing Techniques | 2008

Van Wijk EP, Ludtke R, Van Wijk R. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on ultraweak photon emission. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2008 14(3):241-250 Evidence has accumulated favoring the possible role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. A few studies suggest a role of long-term meditation in the control of the free-radical metabolism. Attention has recently been drawn to spontaneous ultraweak photon emission (UPE). The present study recorded spontaneous, UPE at multiple anatomic locations of subjects with long-term experience in transcendental meditation (TM) and compared this with a group that practiced other meditation techniques (OMT) and with subjects having no meditation experience. Data demonstrated emission intensities in the TM and OMT groups that were 27% and 17% lower respectively, compared to the control group.

Health | Physiological CPVol 1 Pg 38 | Metabolic Changes | TM distinguished from eyes closed resting, dreaming, sleeping, altered states such as hypnosis and autosuggestion | 1970

Wallace RK. Physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation. Science 1970 167:1751-1754 The Transcendental Meditation technique produces a physiological distinguishable state Oxygen consumption, heart rate, skin resistance, and electroencephalograph measurements were recorded, before, during and after, subjects practiced Transcendental Meditation. There were significant changes between the control period and meditation period in all measurements. During meditation, oxygen consumption and heart rate decreased, skin resistance increased, electroencephalogram showed specific changes in certain frequencies. This was the very first published peer-reviewed study on the Transcendental Meditation technique. These results were the first to distinguish the state produced by Transcendental Meditation from commonly encountered states of consciousness and the first to suggest that it has practical applications.

Health | Physiological CPVol 1 Pg 86 | Metabolic Changes | Holistic effect opposite of fight or flight response | 1972

Wallace RK et al. The physiology of meditation. Scientific American 1972 226:84-90 Physiological changes during the Transcendental Meditation technique indicate a state characterized by quiescence of the sympathetic nervous system.

Health | Psychological CPVol 1Pg 498 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1972

Wallace RK et al. Decreased drug abuse with Transcendental Meditation: a study of 1,862 subjects. In CJD Zarafonetis (ed.), Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the International Conference (pp.369-376).Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972 Drug abuse and drug selling were found to decrease among individuals practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. Also, attitudes were found to change in the direction of discouraging others from abusing drugs. 1,862 who practiced the TM technique for at least 3 months formed the basis of this study. Further, the subjects decreased their consumption of “hard” alcoholic beverages and smoked fewer cigarettes. The magnitude of these changes increased with the length of time the subjects practiced the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1856 | Health | Aging: Younger Biological Age | 1982

Wallace RK, Dillbeck MC, Jacobe E, Harrington B. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience 1982 16(1):53-58 This study employed a standardized aging index and found that the biological age of middle-aged individuals practicing TM was significantly younger than both their chronological age and the biological age of non-meditating control subjects. The TM technique and the TM-Sidhi program was found to reverse the aging process. The mean biological age of short-term meditators was found to be 5 years younger and that of long-term meditators 12 years younger, than expected from population norms. A correlation was found between length of time practicing the TM program and younger biological age.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1765 | Physiological Efficiency & Stability | Improved Neurological Efficiency | 1983

Wallace RK, Mills PJ, Orme-Johnson DW, Dillbeck MC, Jacobe E. Modification of the paired H-reflex through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Experimental Neurology 1983 79(1):77-86 The amplitude of the paired H reflex was facilitated as a result of the TM-Sidhi program, indicating improved neurological efficiency.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1867 | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | 1983

Wallace RK, Silver J, Mills PJ, Dillbeck MC, Wagoner DE. Systolic blood pressure and long-term practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program: effects of TM on systolic blood pressure. Psychosomatic Medicine 1983 45(1):41-46 Subjects practicing the TM and TM-Sidhi program were found to have lower systolic blood pressure than norms for the general population. Furthermore long-term meditators were found to have lower systolic blood pressure than short-term meditators.

Health | Physiological CPVol1 Pg 79 | Metabolic Changes | Unique State of Deep Rest along with Alertness | 1971

Wallace RK, Wilson AF et al. A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state. American Journal of Physiology 1971 221:795-799 Physiological changes occurring during the Transcendental Meditation technique indicate a state of deep relaxation along with mental alertness. decreased O2 consumption, decreased CO2 elimination, decreased respiratory rate, decreased blood lactate, decreased skin resistance, markedly increased EEG, increase of slow alpha waves and occasional theta activity. Physiological changes differ from those during sleep, hypnosis and auto suggestion and characterize a wakeful hypo-metabolic state.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Lower CVD Risk in Post Menopausal Women | 2004

Walton KG, Fields JZ, Levitsky DK, Harris DA, Pugh ND, Schneider RH. Lowering cortisol and CVD risk in postmenopausal women: a pilot study using the Transcendental Meditation program. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2004 1032:211-215 This study showed reduced cardiovascular risk factors and levels of the stress hormone cortisol in post-menopausal women.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg3003 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Neurotransmitters: Increased Serotonin with Longer TM-Sidhi Program Related to Physical and Mental Health | 1983

Walton KG, Francis D, Lerom M, Tourenne C. Behaviorally-induced alterations in urinary 5-hydroxyindoles. Transactions of the American Society for Neurochemistry 1983 14:199 Length of time spent in the practice of Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program influenced the daily rhythms of the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA and similar substances. Since serotonin is important in physical and mental health, these changes could mediate some beneficial effects of the program.

Health | Physiological | Health: Prevention | Neuroendocrine Mechanisms: Disease Prevention | 1995

Walton KG, Pugh ND. Stress, steroids, and ‘Ojas’: neuroendocrine mechanisms and current promise of ancient approaches to disease prevention. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 1995 39(1):3-36  TM has been investigated in conjunction with other aspects of a natural comprehensive health program.- Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3760 | Cardiovascular | Hormonal Balance Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk | 1995

Walton KG, Pugh BS, Gelderloos P, MacRae P. Stress reduction and preventing hypertension: preliminary support for a psychoneuroendocrine mechanism. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1995 1(3):263-283 This study found lower levels of vanillylmandelic acid, indicating reduced turnover of norepinephrine and epinephrine, reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system activity. This may contribute to reduced contractility or reactivity of the vascular smooth muscle and thus to reduced peripheral resistance leading to reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Other stress related hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, aldosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) change with TM practice, suggesting a mechanism by which the practice may reduce blood volume and normalize blood pressure.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Decreased Mortality & Morbidity | 2004

Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich SI. Review of controlled research on the Transcendental Meditation program and cardiovascular disease—risk factors, morbidity and mortality. Cardiology in Review2004 12(5):262-266 This review supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Hormonal Balance Reduced Cortisol Increased Levels of DHEA-S | 2002

Walton KG, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, Salerno JW, Nordstrom CK, Merz CN. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 2: effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine 2002 28(3):106-123 The TM technique has acute as well as longitudinal effects on reducing baseline cortisol as well as average cortisol across stress sessions. TM practice also increases levels of DHEA-S, an androgen hormone produced in the adrenal glands, which at low levels is a significant predictor of Cardiovascular disease and ischemic heart disease, controlling for other risk factors.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Stress: Clinical and Policy Implications | 2005

Walton KG, Schneider RH, Salerno JW, Nidich SI. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 3: clinical and policy implications of research on the Transcendental Meditation program.Behavioral Medicine 2005 30(4):173-183 This review supports previous and subsequent research showing, clinically important reductions in blood pressure and that sustained blood pressure changes of the magnitude produced by TM would be associated with substantially decreased risk of heart attack and stroke, the leading cause of mortality worldwide.

Health | Physiological CPVol 2 Pg 824 | EEG | Faster Reaction Time | 1976

Wandhofer A, Kobal G, Plattig K-H. Shortening of latencies of human auditory evoked brain potentials during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Zeitschrift für Elektroenzephalographie und Elektromyographie EEG-EMG 1976 7(2):99-103 Faster bioelectric brain responses to auditory stimuli were found in practitioners of the TM technique as compared to control subjects.

Health | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1756 | Physiological Efficiency & Stability | Faster Reaction Time | 1980

Warshal D. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on normal and Jendrassik reflex time.
Perceptual and Motor Skills 1980 50(3):1103-1106
Reduction in the reflex latency and reflex motor time were found in subjects following instruction in the Transcendental Meditation technique, indicating improvements in both the neural (latency) and muscular (motor) components of the reflex.

Health | Physiological | Cardiovascular | Reduced Hypertension | RCT | 1997

Wenneberg SR, Schneider RH, McLean C, Levitsky DK, Walton KG, Mandarino JV, Salerno JW, Wallace RK, Waziri R. A controlled study of the effects of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular reactivity and ambulatory blood pressure. International Journal of Neuroscience 1997 89(1/2):15-28 A randomized longitudinal study of ambulatory blood pressure (monitoring blood pressure during the days activity) found that those who learned the Transcendental Meditation program showed a reduction of mean ambulatory diastolic blood pressure, to lower normal levels without loss of blood pressure reactivity.

Health | Review CPVol 4 Pg2769 | Health | TM Breakthrough in Health and General Medical Practice | 1978

Werner O. Das Programm der Transzendentalen Meditation in der Medizin. Schweizerische Ärztezeitung 1978 39:1722-1726 The author discusses the benefits of the Transcendental Meditation program in general medical practice and shows that it represents a major breakthrough in the field of health. This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in improving quality of life and mental health in patients with chronic disorders.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2993 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Hormonal Balance | 1986

Werner OR, Wallace RK, Charles B, Janssen G, Stryker T, Chalmers RA. Long-term endocrinologic changes in subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Psychosomatic Medicine 1986 48(1/2):59-66 Long term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program showed increased efficiency and stability of endocrine functioning.

Health | Physiological CPVol 1 Pg 251 | EEG | Increased Alertness | 1975

Williams P, West M. EEG responses to photic stimulation in persons experienced at meditation.
Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1975 39(5):519-522
During an eyes closed resting period separate from the Transcendental Meditation technique, participants in the Transcendental Meditation program showed EEG evidence of greater alertness than that of a control group.

Health | Physiological | Health | Decreased Asthma Symptoms | RCT | 1975

Wilson AF, Honsberger RW, Chiu JT, Novey HS. Transcendental Meditation and asthma. Respiration1975 32(1):74-80 The TM technique was found to improve airway resistance and to reduce severity of symptoms (as evaluated by both patients and physicians.) Twenty one patients kept daily diaries of symptoms and medications and answered questionnaires at the end of the study and six months later. Other measurements included physician evaluation, pulmonary function testing, and galvanic skin resistance. The results indicated that the Transcendental Meditation program is a useful adjunct in treating asthma.

Health | Physiological CPVol 5 Pg2981 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Rest Difference Between TM and Rest | 1987

Wilson AF, Jevning R, Guich S. Marked reduction of forearm carbon dioxide production during states of decreased metabolism. Physiology and Behavior 1987 41(4):347-352 This study showed a unique change in forearm metabolism during the Transcendental Meditation technique, indicating deep relaxation

Health | Physiological CPVol 4 Pg2235 | Metabolic & Biochemical | Unique State of Deep Holistic Rest | 1984

Wolkove N, Kreisman H, Darragh D, Cohen C, Frank H. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on breathing and respiratory control. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology 1984 56(3):607-612 Decreased minute ventilation and increased galvanic skin resistance were found during the Transcendental Meditation technique, but not during ordinary eyes-closed relaxation. Further measurements suggests that changes in ventilation during the Transcendental Meditation technique are mediated by central neural effects of the practice.

Health | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3894 | Cardiovascular | Coronary Artery Disease/Improved Exercise Tolerance | 1996

Zamarra JW, Schneider RH, Besseghini I, Robinson DK, Salerno JW. Usefulness of the Transcendental Meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology 1996 77 (10):867-870 This controlled study examined the effect of the TM technique on exercise tolerance in patients with angina pectoris (chest pain on exercise due to heart disease). All patients in this study had proven coronary artery disease, mostly of moderate or severe degree, and positive exercise-stress tests, indicating inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle during exercise. Over an eight month period, subjects who practiced the TM technique showed significant improvements in exercise tolerance and maximum work load achieved during a standard exercise test. In addition, exercise could be continued for longer before signs of oxygen shortage in the heart muscle appeared in the ECG (electrocardiogram), indicating improved oxygenation of the heart muscle. Nine out of ten subjects practicing the TM technique showed improved exercise tolerance, while no improvements were found in a control group.  Improved Cardiovascular Functioning in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Improved Exercise Tolerance (Increased Exercise Duration; Increased Maximal Workload; Greater Delay of Onset of ST Depression; Greater Reduction of Rate Pressure During Exercise)

Health & Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol6 Pg 4056 | Productivity and Quality of Life Dev of Personality | Decreased Insomnia Workplace Less Stress, Reduced Cigarettes and Hard Liquor | 1993

Alexander CN, Swanson GC, Rainforth MV, Carlisle TW, Todd CC, Oates RM. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: a prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping 1993 6:245-262 This research study found that executives and employees who learned and regularly practiced theTranscendental Meditation program, in contrast to other employees from the same worksites, showed increased employee effectiveness, increased job satisfaction, improved personal and work relationships, reduced job worry and tension, reduced trait anxiety, decreased insomnia and decreased fatigue, reduced cigarette and hard liquor use, improved health and greater calm (lower skin conductance during task performance. The groups of participants in the Transcendental Meditation program also showed, in contrast to controls, improvement on three components found to underlie each of these measures, – increased occupational coherence, increased physiological settledness, and increased satisfaction with professional and personal life. This study examined health, stress and employee development in two settings in the automotive industry; a large manufacturing plant of a Fortune 100 company and a small sales distribution company. Employees who learned the TM technique showed significantly greater improvements on a wide variety of measures, including: reduced physiological arousal; decreases in anxiety, job tension, insomnia and fatigue; reduced consumption of cigarettes and hard liquor; and improved general health.

Health & Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections: Reduced Stress | 1989

Dillbeck MC. Transcendental Meditation alleviates stress. In J-M Etkins (ed.), The State of Corrections:Proceedings of American Correctional Association Annual Conferences, 1988 (pp.157-161). Laurel, Maryland: American Correctional Association, 1989

Health & Social Behavior | Review CPVol 2Pg 1269 | Health | Health & Social Welfare | 1978

Gräf D. Die Transzendentale Meditation (TM) und ihre therapeutischen Möglichkeiten. Zeitschrift für Allgemeinmedizin 1978 54(12):701-709 Research findings on the Transcendental Meditation program are discussed with respect to its benefits in the fields of health and social welfare.

Health & Social Behavior | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3911 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse: Reduced Cigarette Smoking | 1994

Royer A. The role of the Transcendental Meditation technique in promoting smoking cessation: a longitudinal study. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(1/2):221-238 Decreased Cigarette Consumption; Increased Smoking Quit Rate Over a Two Year Period. This study found that those who learned the Transcendental Meditation technique and practiced it regularly showed a significantly decreased cigarette consumption, as well as increased smoking quit rate. The proportion of subjects who either quit or decreased smoking was significantly related to regularity of practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. These effects were found to be long lasting. There is strong and growing evidence of the health risks and high costs of smoking, yet more than 51 million Americans are regular cigarette smokers (US Health and Human Services, 1988). Although approximately 90% of smokers desire to quit (Orleans, 1985), 80% of those who attempt to quit, fail on their first effort (US Health and Human Services, 1984). One reason for failure seems to be that quitting smoking causes physiological and psychological distress. Another reason some smokers may not quit is because they believe smoking helps them to think better, to feel better (less tense or anxious), to cope with stress, and to keep their weight under control.

Health & Social Behavior | Physiology & Health CPVol6 Pg 4225 | Rehabilitation Neuroendocrine Mechanism | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1994

Walton KG, Levitsky D. A neuroendocrine mechanism for the reduction of drug use and addictions by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(1/2):89-117 This paper outlines a model of the neurochemical and endocrine processes associated with chronic stress and their contribution to the development of drug addiction; it also reviews research on the physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation in light of this model, indicating mechanisms of how this technique creates physiological balance and thereby promotes freedom from addictive behaviors.

Health & World Peace | Physiological & Psychological & Sociological | Metabolic & Biochemical & Productivity & Quality of Life | Neurotransmitters: Reduced cortisol and increased serotonin Psychoneuroendocrine mechanism for reduced social stress including city-wide | 2005

Walton KG, Cavanaugh KL, Pugh ND. Effect of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program on biochemical indicators of stress in non-meditators: a prospective time series study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):339-376 This study investigates a proposed psycho-neuroendocrine mechanism that may help to explain, at least in part, the observed reductions of behavioral indicators of social stress reported in other studies on the group practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi program. Dynamic regression analysis of time series observations over the experimental period (77 days) found that the daily change in the size of a TM group was a significant predictor of immediate subsequent mean (natural log) overnight excretion rates of (a) cortisol and the main metabolite of serotonin (5-HIAA) and (c) the ratio of rates for 5-HIAA and cortisol. An increase in the day to day size of the group for the afternoon session was a significant predictor of reduced cortisol excretion later that night in a group of 6 non-practitioners living and working up to 20 miles from the group (p=.004) An increase in the daily change of group size also was a significant predictor of increases in both the excretion rate of 5-HIAA (p=.03) and the ratio of excretion rates of 5-HIAA to cortisol (p<.0001)

Health Social Behavior | Physiological CPVol 6 Pg3906 | Productivity and Quality of Life | Decreased Insomnia, Decreased Cigarettes, Increased Mental Health of Industrial Workers | 1990

Haratani T, Hemmi T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on mental health of industrial workers.Japanese Journal of Industrial Health 1990 32:656 Takashi Haratani This was a five month study conducted by the researchers at Japan’s National Institute of Industrial Health. (A branch of the Japanese Ministry of Labor) industrial employees practicing the TM technique showed increased emotional stability, reduced anxiety, decreased tendency to neurosis and reduced insomnia and smoking compared to controls. Improvement in General Physical and Mental Well-Being in Industrial Workers: Decreased Physical Complaints; Decreased Impulsive Tendency; Reduced Emotional Instability. Overall, employees practicing TM improved significantly on 10 out of 14 mental health scales, whereas controls improved on only one.

Mental Potential
Mental Potential | Psychological | Focused Attention | 2017

Default mode network activation and Transcendental Meditation practice: Focused Attention or Automatic Self-transcending?

Frederick Travis PhD, Niyazi Parim MA. Default mode network activation and Transcendental Meditation practice: Focused Attention or Automatic Self-transcending? Brain and Cognition 111 (2017) 86–94. This study used subjective reports and eLORETA analysis to assess to what extent Transcendental Meditation (TM) might involve focused attention—voluntary control of mental content. Eighty-seven TM subjects with one month to five years TM experience participated in this study. Regression analysis of years TM practice and self-reported transcendental experiences (lack of time, space and body sense) during meditation practice was flat (r = .07). Those practicing Transcendental Meditation for 1 month reported as much transcending as those with 5 years of practice. The eLORETA comparison of eyes-closed rest/task and TM practice/task identified similar areas of activation: theta and alpha activation during rest and TM in the posterior cingulate and precuneus, part      of the default mode network, and beta2 and beta3 activation during the task in anterior cingulate, ventral lateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, part of the central executive network. In addition, eLORETA comparison of rest and TM identified higher beta temporal activation during rest and higher theta orbitofrontal activation during TM. Thus, it does not seem accurate to include TM practice with meditations in the category of Focused Attention, which are characterized by gamma EEG and DMN deactivation. Mixing meditations with different procedures into a single study confounds exploration of meditation effects and confounds application of meditation practices to different subject populations.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Stress Reduction | 2015

DISASTER RELIEF FOR THE JAPANESE EARTHQUAKE–TSUNAMI OF 2011: STRESS REDUCTION THROUGH THE TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION TECHNIQUE.

MITSUNOBU YOSHIMURA AND ETSUKO KUROKAWA, TAKAYUKI NODA, YASUO TANAKA, KOJI HINENO, YUJI KAWAI, MICHAEL C. DILLBECK.   DISASTER RELIEF FOR THE JAPANESE EARTHQUAKE–TSUNAMI OF 2011: STRESS REDUCTION THROUGH THE TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION TECHNIQUE. Psychological Reports: Mental & Physical Health 2015, 117, 1, 1-11, © Psychological Reports 2015. This study examined changes in self-reported stress symptoms after instruction in the Transcendental Meditation® technique among 171 residents of two cities (Sendai and Ishinomaki) directly affected by the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami disaster compared with 326 non-disaster Tokyo participants previously tested before and after learning the technique and a no-treatment control group ( n  = 68). The participants completed a rating checklist of mental and physical symptoms. Disaster area participants who learned the Transcendental Meditation® technique in contrast to controls showed a significant drop in total symptom score from pre-test to post-test (effect size = −1.09). Results were comparable for an ordinal measure of symptom intensity. The findings suggest the potential value of this procedure for relief from disaster trauma.       

Mental Potential | Psychological | Transcendental Meditation in High Schools | 2015

Practicing Transcendental Meditation in High Schools: Relationship to Well-being and Academic Achievement Among Students

Staci Wendt & Jerry Hipps & Allan Abrams & Jamie Grant & Laurent Valosek & Sanford Nidich. Practicing Transcendental Meditation in High Schools: Relationship to Well-being and Academic Achievement Among Students. California Association of School Psychologists 2015, Published Online 22 July 2015. The Quiet Time program provides a 15-min period at the beginning and end of the school day where students may practice Transcendental Meditation (TM) or another quiet activity such as reading silently to oneself. This study examined the impact of participating in Quiet Time on ninth-grade students (n=141) by comparing their outcomes to those of a group of ninth-grade students (n=53) attending a school that did not participate in Quiet Time. Students in both groups completed an assessment battery in early October 2012, shortly after which treatment students learned TM, and again in May 2013. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the differences between the treatment and comparison groups. Results indicated that students who participated in Quiet Time scored significantly lower on anxiety (p<0.05) and higher on resilience (p<0.05) at follow-up than comparison group students. Within the treatment group, students who spent more time meditating also had higher resilience scores and higher instruction time. After participating in Quiet Time, students self-reported increases in their sleep, happiness, and self-confidence.

The mental health and emotional well-being of young people is of concern worldwide (Blancoetal.2008; Goreetal.2011). Psychological distress, generally characterized by symptoms of anxiety, depression, and anger or hostility, has been linked to poor social functioning and day-to-day living (Bayram and Bilgel 2008), risky behaviors, and physical illness in students (Adams et al. 2008). Further, psychological distress has been identified as a precursor to more serious mental health disorders (Kessler et al. 2007). Students globally report significant levels of psychological distress (Dyrbye et al. 2006; Verger et al. 2009). A large body of research has shown that stress compromises cognitive functioning, behavior, and emotional and physical well-being (Kutash and Schlesinger 1980) and negatively impacts student learning. It has been found that in addition to community environmental and social stressors, school experiences can also be stressful (Lowry et al. 1999). The fields of cognitive and behavioral neuroscience have clearly delineated the impact of brain functioning on thinking, emotion, and behavior (Laird et al. 2009). Research conducted over the past 40 years has demonstrated that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique, because of its effects on improving physiological functioning, has wide-ranging benefits. These include improved health (Paul-Labrador et al. 2006), decreased psychological distress (negative emotions) (Eppley et al. 1989; Nidich et al. 2009), increased social and emotional learning competencies, enhanced self-actualizing abilities (Alexander et al. 1991), increased intelligence and creativity (So and Orme Johnson 2001), reduced substance abuse (Alexander and Rainforth 1994), and greater work productivity (Frew 1974). A program with the ability to significantly reduce stress and promote healthy brain functioning has important relevance to education, both as a means to achieve schools’ primary aim of promoting learning and schools’ more general aim of promoting healthy human development. Initial research findings on TM for students have been very positive at multiple school levels. Research conducted at the secondary school level found significant reductions in psychological distress, including anxiety in students practicing the TM program compared to controls (Elder et al. 2014). At the middle school level, meditating students scored significantly higher than control students on the California Standards Tests (CSTs) in several content areas (Nidich et al. 2011). Other school research on the TM program has indicated higher graduation rates and lower school dropout rates (Colbert and Nidich 2013), reduced negative school behavior (Barnes et al. 2003), and improved physical health (Barnes et al. 2004). At the college level, a randomized controlled study found significant reductions in students’ mood disturbance, anxiety, and depression and increases in emotional and behavioral coping ability for students practicing TM compared to students who were not using TM (Nidich etal. 2009). Finally, are centmeta-analysis (Orme-Johnson and Barnes 2013)indicated TM’s positive effects on anxiety. One program that is aimed at reducing stress and promoting healthy brain functioning is the Quiet Time program (https://www.davidlynchfoundation.org/schools.html). The Quiet Time program includes a twice-daily 15-min period where students engage in quiet activities, such as sustained silent reading or TM. The purpose of Quiet Time is to reduce stress, enhance health and well-being, and increase readiness to learn. Although not all students participate in TM during Quiet Time, all students are given the option of practicing TM during this time. The Quiet Time program offers TM because of the extensive body of research documenting the effectiveness of TM for reducing stress and improving mental health (Walton et al. 2004) and for positively impacting brain functioning by promoting higher frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence and brain integration (e.g., Dillbeck et al. 1981; Travis 2002). TM has also been shown to increase executive functioning (e.g., Dillbeck 1982; Travis et al. 2011). The rationale underlying the Quiet Time program recognizes that student learning and behavior and teacher and administrator ability to teach and lead can be improved by enhancing neurophysiological functioning. With the objective of decreasing psychological distress in students and improving student mental health outcomes, the Center for Wellness and Achievement in Education (CWAE) partnered with a large urban west coast school district to implement the Quiet Time program in several of the district’s middle and high schools. The current research builds on the school district’s experience with the Quiet Time program by examining its efficacy with high school students. In the current study, the psychological and academic outcomes for a group of students who practiced TM in Quiet Time at one high school were compared to the outcomes of students attending a demographically similar high school in the same school district that had yet to implement the program.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Effect on distress and brain functioning | 2018

Effect of meditation on psychological distress and brain functioning: A randomized controlled study.

Fred Travis, Laurent Valosek, Arthur Konrad IV, Janice Link, John Salerno, Ray Scheller, Sanford Nidich. Effect of meditation on psychological distress and brain functioning: A randomized controlled study. Brain and Cognition 125 (2018) 100-105.

Background: Psychological stability and brain integration are important factors related to physical and mental health and organization effectiveness. This study tested whether a mind-body technique, the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program could increase EEG brain integration and positive affect and decrease psychological distress in government employees.

Method: Ninety-six central office administrators and staff at the San Francisco Unified School District were randomly assigned to either immediate start of the TM program or to a wait-list control group. At baseline and four-month posttest, participants completed an online version of the Profile of Mood States questionnaire (POMS). In addition, a subset of this population (N=79) had their EEG recorded at baseline and at four-month posttest to calculate Brain Integration Scale (BIS) scores.

Results: At posttest, TM participants significantly decreased on the POMS Total Mood Disturbance and anxiety, anger, depression, fatigue, and confusion subscales, and significantly increased in the POMS vigor subscale. TM participants in the EEG-subgroup also significantly increased in BIS scores. Compliance with meditation practice was high (93%).

Conclusion: Findings indicate the feasibility and effectiveness of implementing the TM program to improve brain integration and positive affect and reduce psychological distress in government administrators and staff.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Attention Capacities | 2015

Time perception, mindfulness and attentional capacities in transcendental meditators and matched controls

Schötz, E., et al., Time perception, mindfulness and attentional capacities in transcendental meditators and matched controls, Personality and Individual Differences (2015), (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.10.023). Only a few studies have investigated the sense of time in experienced meditators. In the current case–control study, we investigated whether 20 practitioners in transcendental meditation (TM) showed differences in the perception of time as compared to20 matched controls. Perception of time was assessed with a battery of psychophysical tasks including duration reproduction and time estimation tasks in the milliseconds-to-minutes range as well as with psychometric instruments related to subjective time and assessments concerning the subjective passage of time. Attentional capacities were measured with the Attention Network Test. Trait mindfulness was assessed with the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. Results indicate that the TM meditators performed more consistently in the duration reproduction tasks in the multiple seconds’ range and responded more accurately in the time estimation tasks in the minutes’ range as well as in the duration discrimination task than controls. Self-rated mindfulness was more pronounced in meditators, while attentional capacities did not differ. In conclusion, experts in TM performed more accurately in psychophysical time perception tasks and had higher mindfulness than non-meditating controls. Whether these differences are causally related to the practice of meditation should be investigated in future studies.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Stress and Well-Being| 2017

Comment on ‘‘Meditation Programs for Psychological Stress and Well-Being”

David W. Orme-Johnson, PhD and Vernon A. Barnes, PhD. Comment on ‘‘Meditation Programs for Psychological Stress and Well-Being’’. THE JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE Volume X, Number X, 201X, pp. 1–4, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. (DOI: 10.1089/acm.2016.0273). Conclusion: We have shown that TM is effective in reducing anxiety in populations undergoing clinical treatment, but the results are much more robust when all studies are included. We suggest that future systematic reviews and meta-analyses of psychological variables such as anxiety, depression, and anger further investigate the role of pretreatment levels in influencing the magnitude of outcomes and consider grouping studies according to pretreatment levels. We also suggest that future reviews of behavioral interventions on psychological.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Quality of Life| 2017

The Effect of Coherent Collective Consciousness on National Quality of Life and Economic Performance Indicators—An Analysis of the IMD Index of National Competitive Advantage

Guy Hatchard, Kenneth Cavanaugh. The Effect of Coherent Collective Consciousness on National Quality of Life and Economic Performance Indicators—An Analysis of the IMD Index of National Competitive Advantage. Journal of Health and Environmental Research. Special Issue: Maharishi Vedic Science: Creating a Sustainable Future. Vol. 3, No. 3-1, 2017, pp. 16-31 (doi: 10.11648/j.jher.s.2017030301.12).The scores of New Zealand and Norway on the IMD Index of National Competitive Advantage increased significantly when they passed the predicted coherence group threshold in 1993 (1% of a population practicing the Transcendental Meditation program or the √1% practicing the advanced TM-Sidhi program in a group) when compared to 44 other developed nations as shown by cross-country panel regression analysis robust to serially correlated errors, heteroskedasticity, and contemporaneous correlation of residuals (p < 0.000000000000003). Subsidiary analysis and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data confirmed that the changes were unusually broad-based (p <.000000065), sustained, and balanced in nature with five years of high growth, low unemployment, and low inflation. Taken as a whole, the findings suggest a prescription for balanced and sustained growth based on a method to enhance quality of life and innovation among the population.

Mental Potential | Psychological | EEG microstates during different phases of Transcendental Meditation practice | 2017

EEG microstates during different phases of Transcendental Meditation practice

Pascal L. Faber, Frederick Travis, Patricia Milz, Niyazi Parim. EEG microstates during different phases of Transcendental Meditation practice. Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017.Two phases of Transcendental Meditation (TM)—transcending and undirected mentation—were compared to each other and to task-free resting using multichannel EEG recorded from 20 TM practitioners. An EEG microstate analysis identified four classes of microstates which were labeled A, B, C and D, based on their similarity to previously published classes. For each class of microstates, mean duration, coverage and occurrence were computed. Resting and transcending differed from undirected mentation with decreased prominence of Class A and increased prominence of Class D microstates. In addition, transcending showed decreased prominence of Class C microstates compared to undirected mentation. Based on previous findings on the functional significance of the microstate classes, the results indicate an increased reference to reality and decreased visualization during resting and transcending compared to undirected mentation. Also, our results indicate decreased saliency of internally generated mentations during transcending compared to undirected mentation reflecting a more detached and less evaluative processing. It is proposed that the continuous cycling through these two phases of meditation.

Mental Potential | Physiological | Increased Conscious Alertness | 2017

The Contribution of Proposed Field Effects of Consciousness to the Prevention of US Accidental Fatalities

Kenneth L. Cavanaugh and Michael C. Dillbeck. The Contribution of Proposed Field Effects of Consciousness to the Prevention of US Accidental Fatalities. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 24, No. 1–2, 2017, pp. 53–86. This research tests the hypothesis that practice of a subjective procedure, the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TMSidhi programmed by a group of a theoretically predicted size would be sufficient to increase conscious alertness in the larger population, as measured by reduced rates of motor vehicle fatalities and fatalities due to other accidents. Monthly data for 2002–2010 from a prospective quasi-experiment was analyzed using intervention analysis to test for decreased trends in accident rates during the intervention period 2007–2010. Controlling for pre-intervention trends, seasonality, and autocorrelation, significant shifts in trend, at the predicted time and in the predicted direction, were evident in both series. These trend shifts indicated an average annual decline of 5.24% in motor vehicle fatalities controlling for vehicle miles travelled, and 3.38% in other accidental fatalities. The mechanism for these collective effects, apparently independent of behavioral interaction, is discussed in light of possible alternative hypotheses.

Mental | Psychological | Self-Concept Academic Performance | College Students Field Independence | 1992

Fergusson LC. Field independence and art achievement in meditating and nonmeditating college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1992 75(7):1171-1175 Higher Level of Field Independence; Field Independence Correlated with Artistic Ability and College Academic Performance This study found that undergraduate art students practicing the Transcendental Meditation program had higher levels of field independence than those not practicing, and that degree of field independence was significantly correlated with artistic ability and college grade point average.

Mental Potential & Health | Physiological | EEG | TC+ Increase in Vigilance and Selective Attention | 1980

Banquet JP, Lesèvre N. Event-related potentials in altered states of consciousness. Progress in Brain Research 1980 54:447-453 Practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program were found to have faster reactions with fewer mistakes, and a shorter latency and larger amplitude of visual evoked potentials, indicating an increase in the capacity for selective attention and an improved level of vigilance. Note: In this paper the phrase ‘altered states of consciousness’ refers to higher states of consciousness developed through the TM program.

Mental & Health | Physiological | EEG | Increased Coherence in New Meditators | 1981

Dillbeck MC, Bronson EC. Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 1981 14(3/4):147-151 Frontal EEG coherence increased over a two-week period in subjects who learned the Transcendental Meditation technique compared to measurements taken prior to instruction.

Mental & Health | Physiological | EEG | Improved Flexibility, Efficiency in Concept Learning | 1981

Dillbeck MC, Orme-Johnson DW, Wallace RK. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 1981 15(3):151-157 Frontal EEG coherence and H-reflex recovery were found to be correlated with flexibility of concept learning in subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. Instruction in the TM-Sidhi program was seen to improve efficiency on a concept learning task.

Mental Potential | Psychological: Review | Review of Research | Review of Effects on Individual & Society | 1994

Alexander CN. Transcendental Meditation. In RJ Corsini (ed.), Encyclopedia of Psychology (pp.5465-5466). New York: Wiley Interscience, 1994 This paper presents an introduction to the Transcendental Meditation Program and major scientific research findings on its effects for the individual and society.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | TC+ | 1990

Alexander CN, Davies JL, Dixon CA, Dillbeck MC, Oetzel RM, Drucker SM, Muehlman JM, Orme-Johnson DW. Growth of higher stages of consciousness: Maharishi’s Vedic psychology of human development. In CN Alexander, EJ Langer (eds), Higher Stages of Human Development: Perspectives on Adult Growth (pp.286-341). New York: Oxford University Press, 1990 The authors describe how theory and research in Maharishi’s Vedic Psychology fulfills the quest of psychology to understand and promote the full range of human development. Are proposed postformal stages truly qualitatively distinct from formal operations? Kramer (1983) asserts that genuine post-formal stages should satisfy three criteria of structural change: (I) greater abstraction of thought than in formal operations, (2) hierarchical integration of formal operations, and (3) broader equilibrium (see Piaget, 197la; Inhelder & Piaget, 1958). We will briefly examine proposed post-formal theories in this volume in relation to these criteria. Many of the authors who delineate postformal stages agree about several of their main features, and it has been suggested (e.g., by Richards & Commons) that the alignment among these descriptions may reflect the universality of the underlying stages being described. However, it has yet to be demonstrated that an individual meeting developmental criteria for one proposed stage necessarily expresses the characteristics integral to the corresponding stages of the other theorists. For example, does capacity to reason about systems of systems on the level of abstract thought necessarily coexist with greater affective and self integration? This issue, as do many others raised by the expansive theorizing contained in this volume, promises to stimulate new directions and levels of developmental research. One summary generalization can be safely made: Virtually all contributors agree that an understanding of adolescent development does not provide an adequate base for comprehending the breadth, depth, and richness of potential development in adulthood. Further conceptual clarification and research on the nature of development beyond formal operations should lead to significant revision of our understanding of the possibilities for fully “mature” forms of human growth. Ultimately, how we conceive of the endpoint of development will not only influence the direction of our research agendas but either restrict or encourage our own personal development as well.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | Adult Growth | 1990

Alexander CN, Drucker SM, Langer EJ. Major issues in the exploration of adult growth. In CN Alexander, EJ Langer (eds), Higher Stages of Human Development: Perspectives on Adult Growth(pp.3-32). New York: Oxford University Press, 1990 What are the highest possible forms of human development? One’s conception of the endpoint of development is fundamental, for it contains one’s assumptions about the direction, possibilities, and dynamics of human growth. Moreover, all prior developmental stages will be viewed as progressive approximations of this goal. Contributors to this volume were asked to address this basic issue of end point. Answering this question generally requires examination of three related issues: Does development toward the endpoint proceed through qualitatively distinct stages? What mechanisms underlie this development? What major areas get developed (e.g., cognition and affect), and how do they interrelate? Based on recent theory and research, the chapters in this book provide expanded perspectives on these important issues.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Education | Management | 1990

Alexander CN, Heaton DP, Chandler HM. Promoting adult psychological development: implications for management education. Human Resource Management 1990 2:133-137 This paper addresses the critical question of what management education can do to develop the personal characteristics needed to fulfill the demand for managers. We argue that 1) psychological development underlies performance of the tasks of management, and 2)psychological development can be facilitated by appropriate technologies; therefore, 3) such a technology can be employed to develop managers and beyond. longitudinal studies of ego developmental technology, the Transcendental Meditation technique experienced unprecedented unfreezing of psychological development in adulthood. Further application of this technology may facilitate the development of managers for the demands of the twenty-first century.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | TC+ | 1994

Alexander CN, Heaton DP, Chandler HM. Advanced human development in the Vedic Psychology of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: theory and research. In ME Miller, SR Cook-Greuter (eds), Transcendence and Mature Thought in Adulthood: The Further Reaches of Adult Development (pp.39-70). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 1994 The authors describe the development of higher states of consciousness as brought to light by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in his Vedic Psychology, and contrast this to contemporary themes of cognitive or self-development. The authors then review research demonstrating uniquely high scores on self-development among advanced practitioners in Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Education | Word of Wisdom | 2005

Alexander CN, Kurth SC, Travis F, Alexander VK. Effect of practice of the children’s Transcendental Meditation technique on cognitive stage development: acquisition and consolidation of conservation.
Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005
17(1):21-46 The results of this study on cognitive stage development in children practicing the Maharishi Word of Wisdom technique are striking. These findings suggest that practice of the Word of Wisdom technique may accelerate the rate of acquisition and especially consolidation of conservation in childhood. The transition period in the mastery of consolidation of conservation – horizontal decalage – was substantially reduced in these children. The results of this study clearly indicate that children’s practice of the Word of Wisdom technique is positively related to performance on a series of cognitive development tasks measuring conservation.  All three experimental hypotheses were supported. First, the children practicing the Word of Wisdom technique, appeared to begin acquisition of conservations skills at an earlier age than controls. Second, a significantly greater proportion of the Word of Wisdom group exhibited full consolidation of conservation, as indicated by complete mastery of the conservation series. Finally, significantly fewer of the Word of Wisdom children displayed horizontal decalage as indicated by a transitional score on the conservation series. The performance of the children practicing the Word of Wisdom technique suggests phase transitions between stages rather than prolonged temporal displacement. A striking implication of this accelerated consolidation finding is that optimization of the natural growth process in childhood through the practice of the World of Wisdom technique may result in a substantial foreshortening, and in some cases, possible elimination of the developmental “irregularity” of horizontal decalage. Given that virtually all of the children who were practicing the Word of Wisdom technique were fully conserving by age 5.08 years and that complete conservation does not typically occur until 11 or 12 years of age, the strongest possible interpretation of these data would suggest that practice of the Word of Wisdom technique may accelerate consolidation of conservation by as much as 5 to 7 years in comparison to the larger population.  This cross sectional study examined cognitive stage development in 47 children practicing the Word of Wisdom technique and in 47 matched controls.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | TC+ | 1990

Alexander CN, Langer EJ (eds). Higher Stages of Human Development: Perspectives on Adult Growth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990 The authors describe how theory and research in Maharishi’s Vedic Psychology fulfills the quest of psychology to understand and promote the full range of human development. This research provides striking evidence that Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation program facilitates development across four major periods of development. These findings challenge a widely held tenet in developmental psychology that quality of direct interaction with the external physical or social environment is necessarily the critical factor influencing cognitive growth. In these studies, neither external enrichment of the environment, nor training with test-related materials or even with related concepts was employed. Instead, substantial change resulted from systematically turning attention inward to intrinsically deeper levels of mind and, ultimately, pure consciousness at their source. Regardless of the subject’s initial developmental level (e.g., sometimes quite low in the prison samples: Alexander, 1982) rate of development was rapidly accelerated through experiences of pure consciousness during the TM technique. Based upon these results the authors conclude that the process of transcending through the TM program facilitates development across periods of development commonly identified by contemporary psychology, and extends this process of growth to the higher states of consciousness described by Maharishi’s Vedic Psychology. They propose that were this developmental technology widely introduced at the earliest appropriate age, development would not freeze prematurely and growth to full enlightenment would appear as the inevitable consequence of normal human development.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Affective | Relaxation | 1993

Alexander CN, Sands D. Meditation and relaxation. In FN McGill (ed.), McGill’s Survey of the Social Sciences: Psychology (pp.1499-1505). Pasadena, California: Salem Press, 1993

Mental Potential | Psychological | Intelligence, Learning and Academic Performance, Cognitive and Affective | Improved Academic Performance, Greater Moral & Social Maturity | 1981

Aron A, Orme-Johnson D, Brubaker P. The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum: a four-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning. College Student Journal 1981 15(2):140-146 This study found improvements in academic performance, greater moral maturity, increased orientation toward positive values, increased intelligence, increased self-confidence, increased sociability, increased psychological health and growth of social maturity in college students who practice the TM technique.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Intelligence, Learning and Academic Performance | Emotions Education Adolescents Middle School | 2003

Benn R. Transcendental Meditation (TM) and emotional functioning in fifth grade students. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies 2003 8:480-481 This study examined the effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on social-emotional development and academic performance in early adolescence. Meditation was hypothesized to increase positive affect, decrease negative emotions and improve academic performance in middle school students. Forty-four African-American fifth-grade students enrolled in a charter middle school were randomized into two groups. One group of students was instructed in TM and subsequently practiced meditation for 10 minutes, two times a day during the school day with teachers and students in older grades. At the time of school-based meditation, the control group of students remained in their classrooms with their teachers and had assigned free time. Study participants completed self-report survey scales that assessed emotional well-being, emotional intelligence, anxiety and anger at baseline, three, nine and 15 months post-instruction in meditation. Participants’ grades for academic subjects and study habits/behaviors were coded from student records at semester time points that closely paralleled study assessment intervals. Multiple regression models were fitted to each outcome measure, controlling for the main grouping variable (mediation or not) as well as all other covariates of interest (e.g. free and reduced lunch, gender). For the 15-month academic measures, a linear regression model with normal error was used, and for non-academic measures, a repeated measures regression model with normal error was employed with an exchangeable correlation structure.

Mental Potential | Psychological CPVol | EEG | Maximizing Brain Utilization | 1977

Bennett JE, Trinder J. Hemispheric laterality and cognitive style associated with Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 1977 14(3):293-296 Subjects who practice the TM technique showed a greater degree of lateral asymmetry on analytical and spatial tasks than a control group, indicating improved utilization of that part of the brain most suited to a specific task.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | Self-Actualization Self-Esteem, Ego Strength | 1976

Berg WP, Mulder B. Psychological research on the effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on a number of personality variables. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie (Behaviour: Journal of Psychology) 1976 4:206-218 Subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique were found to increase in self-esteem, ego strength, satisfaction and self-actualization. Significant reductions in physical and social inadequacy, neuroticism, depression, and rigidity were found in short term meditators (9 weeks after learning TM), whereas no change occurred in controls. In comparison with non-meditating control subjects, long term meditators (mean time of practice one and one-half years) showed remarkably higher levels of self-esteem, satisfaction, ego strength, self-actualization, and trust in others, as well as improved self image. Long term meditators also showed remarkably less neuroticism, depression, and sensitivity to criticism compared with non-meditating controls. these results indicate that the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique allows development of a more harmonious personalty in the direction of self-actualization.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | Self-Actualization | 2005

Chandler HM, Alexander CN, Heaton DP, Grant J. Transcendental Meditation and post-conventional self-development: a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):93-122 This study explored the effects of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique on self-development as measured by Loevinger’s Washington University Sentence Completion Test of ego development, McAdam’s measure of intimacy motivation and Rest’s measure of principled moral reasoning. Ten-year longitudinal data indicated that TM participants increased markedly in ego development in contrast to three control groups matched for gender and age over the same time period (N=136, p<.0001). At posttest 38% (N=34) scored at or beyond the Autonomous level, versus 1% of controls (p=<.0001). TM participants also increased to very high levels of moral reasoning (p=.002) and intimacy (p=.02). The findings suggest that post-conventional development is stimulated by systematically transcending representational thought to experience pure consciousness.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | Family Life | 1987

Chen ME. A comparative study of dimensions of healthy functioning between families practicing the TM program for five years or for less than a year. Journal of Holistic Nursing 1987 5(1):6-10 Families participating in the Transcendental Meditation program for at least five years were found to be more psychologically healthy than families who had just begun the practice, indicating development of more ideal family life.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Intelligence | Increased IQ Improved Reaction Time among University Students | 1991

Cranson RW, Orme-Johnson DW, Dillbeck MC, Jones CH, Alexander CN, Gackenbach J. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: a longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences 1991 12(10):1105-1116 Increased General Intelligence: Improved Intelligence Test Performance; Improvement in Reaction Time Measures Correlated with General Intelligence (Faster Choice Reaction Time, Lower Standard Deviation of Choice Reaction Time); Faster Simple Reaction Time This two year longitudinal study found that university students practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program demonstrated in comparison to control subjects, improved performance on a psychometric intelligence test (t=2.79, p=<0.005, improvement in reaction time measures, correlated with general intelligence (faster choice reaction time (t=.9.10, p=<0.001), lower standard deviation of choice reaction time (t=11.39, p=<0.0001), and faster simpler reaction time (t=2.11, p=<0.025). The control group showed no improvement.

Mental Potential | Review Paper | Psychological Development | TC+ | 1983

Dillbeck MC. Testing the Vedic Psychology of the Bhagavad-Gita. Psychologia 1983 26(3):232-240Research on the TM and TM-Sidhi program is found to provide experimental evidence for the Vedic description of human psychology and the growth of higher states of consciousness, as contained in the Bhagavad-Gita. In particular the known effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program are shown to verify three concepts that are central to the Vedic Psychology of the Bhagavad-Gita: the existence of the experience of transcendence; the growth of qualities of enlightenment as a result of this experience; and the nature of the transcendent as a universal “field” of consciousness.

Mental Potential | Psychological CP Vol6 Pg4380 | Cognitive | TC | 1990

Dillbeck MC. The concept of self in the Bhagavad-Gita and in the Vedic psychology of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: a further note on testability. Psychologia 1990 33(1):50-56 This paper points out that the subjective experience of Transcendental Consciousness (the Self) described in the Bhagavad-Gita has effects that have been measured through extensive scientific research on Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation Program.

Mental Potential | Psychological CP Vol6 Pg4309 | Cognitive | TC+ | 1989

Dillbeck MC, Alexander CN. Higher states of consciousness: Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s Vedic psychology of human development. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 1989 10(4):307-334 The authors outline the development of higher states of consciousness from Maharishi Vedic Physiology in light of relevant research, and propose that human development to these higher states beyond the experience of waking, dreaming and sleeping results from experience of pure consciousness, the Self.

Mental Potential | Psychological CPVol5 Pg3026 | EEG | Increased Cognitive Performance | 1986

Dillbeck MC, Araas-Vesely S. Participation in the Transcendental Meditation program and frontal EEG coherence during concept learning. International Journal of Neuroscience 1986 29(1/2):45-55 Findings showed that participants in the Transcendental Meditation program displayed high frontal EEG coherence associated with more efficient performance on a cognitive task. They also responded on to a cognitively challenging situation with greater physiological stability.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Intelligence, Learning and Academic Performance, Cognitive and Affective | Full Development of the student “The Knower” | 1979

Dillbeck MC, Aron AP, Dillbeck SL. The Transcendental Meditation program as an educational technology: research and applications. Educational Technology 1979 19:7-13 This article reviews laboratory and applied research on the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program relevant to the educational process, discusses the theoretical basis for its educational use, discusses the theoretical basis for its educational use, and describes Maharishi International University, the curriculum of which is based on the application of this program. The research evidence reviewed here indicates that the TM program directly develops the physiological, cognitive, and emotional characteristics of the individual that contribute to the successful learning.  It is posited that these results are the effect of a general development of consciousness which has measurable physiological and psychological correlates.

Mental Potential | Psychological CPVol5 Pg3073 | Intelligence, Learning and Academic Performance, Cognitive Ability | Field Independence and IQ | 1986

Dillbeck MC, Assimakis PD, Raimondi D, Orme-Johnson DW, Rowe R. Longitudinal effects of the TM and TM-Sidhi program on cognitive ability and style. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1986 62(3):731-738Undergraduates practicing the TM and TM-Sidhi program were found to increase significantly on intelligence and field independence over a three to five year period.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Cognitive | Pre-School and Elementary School TM and Word of Wisdom | 2005

Dixon C, Dillbeck MC, Travis F, Msemaje H, Clayborne BM, Dillbeck SL, Alexander CN. Accelerating cognitive and self development: longitudinal studies with preschool and elementary school children.
Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):65-91
This study suggests that the Word of Wisdom technique and the Transcendental Meditation technique positively impacts general intellectual performance, psychological differentiation, analytical ability and self-concept in 4-11 year olds. Practice of these techniques appears to enhance the natural development consolidation of the child’s awareness at a deeper level of mental functioning – the thinking level versus the level of perception.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Affective | Reduced Anxiety | Meta | 1989

Eppley K, Abrams A, Shear J. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology 1989 45(6):957-974  This meta-analysis conducted at Stanford University looked at 146 separate studies on the effectiveness of any technique that had any published research on it and compared the effectiveness of those technologies to the effectiveness of TM. This list of 146 studies included comparing TM to mantra meditation, biofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation, mindfulness, relaxation response, and many other meditation and relaxation techniques. TM was found to be more than twice as effective as any other technique in reducing anxiety. In addition, not one of the other techniques significantly reduced anxiety in comparison to a placebo, (Cohen’s d=.07). The exception was concentration meditation, which was less effective than a placebo, indicating that concentration and control of the mind can exacerbate anxiety. This meta-analysis controlled for a number of possible confounding variables, including mental health status of the population, age, sex, experimental design, duration and hours of treatment, pretest anxiety, demand characteristics, expectation effects, experimenter attitude (whether the researcher was pro- or anti-TM), type of publication, and attrition. These controls did not alter the overall conclusions. Trait anxiety, one’s typical state of anxiety, is a key indicator of psychological relaxation. This meta-analysis compared all techniques on which trait anxiety had been studied, 146 independent outcomes. The subject populations included in the study were college, high school, adult, psychiatric or drug abuse patients, children, adult prisoners, juvenile offenders, and the elderly. Subjects with initially high and low levels of anxiety were also studied. The techniques studied were the Transcendental Meditation technique, Progressive Relaxation (PR), Benson’s Relaxation Response technique, concentration meditation, Sanskrit mantra meditation with permissive attitude, EMG biofeedback, and placebo techniques. The difference in effect sizes between the Transcendental Meditation program and other treatments was maintained even when only published studies were included, when only studies with the strongest design were included, or when only randomized studies conducted by researchers who were neutral or negative towards the TM program were included. Of all the techniques studied, only the Transcendental Meditation technique showed a positive correlation between the reduction of anxiety and length of time that the technique had been practiced. These results indicate that it is the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique per se that causes the reduction on anxiety, not some other factors.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Intelligence, Learning and Academic Performance, Cognitive and Affective | Mental Retardation | 1981

Eyerman J. Transcendental Meditation and mental retardation. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1981 42(1):35-36 The case history of a 26 year old moderately mentally retarded woman (IQ 41-44) documents spontaneous improvements in speech, social behavior, and physiological functioning over a period of three years of the practice of the TM technique. These improvements include: improved physical health, decreased introversion, increased awareness of self, increased intellectual performance, decreased irritability, more awareness of surroundings, improved coordination, more outgoing, decreased temper tantrums.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | Self-Actualization Reducing Negative Personality Traits | 1976

Ferguson PC, Gowan JC. Psychological findings on Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 1976 16(3):51-60 The effect of the TM technique in reducing negative personality traits and increasing self-actualization was marked and cumulative.

Mental Potential | Psychological CP Vol6 Pg3962 | Self-Concept Academic Performance | College Students Field Independence | 1993

Fergusson LC. Field independence, Transcendental Meditation, and achievement in college art: a re-examination. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1993 77(7):1104-1106  This study replicated the finding that undergraduate art students practicing the TM program displayed higher levels of field independence than those not practicing in this program; field independence scores were significantly correlated with artistic ability, college grade point average, and self rated artistic competence. This study of 106 undergraduate art students from four universities. The 12 art students who practiced the Transcendental Meditation technique tended to score higher on the test of Field Independence.

Mental Potential | Psychological CP Vol6 Pg3999 | Affective | PTSD and Anxiety Reduced in College Students | 1995

Fergusson LC, Bonsheck AJ, Boudigues, JM, Personality and Health Characteristics of Cambodian Undergraduates: A Case for Student Development Journal of Instructional Psychology 1995 22:308-319 A study led by researchers at University of California, Lost Angeles shows that depressive symptoms decreased by almost 50% over a 12-month period among people practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique compared to controls. This study examined the impact of a Maharishi Vedic University curriculum on personality and health. Students from three institutions of higher learning in Cambodia, Institute of Economic Science (IES, n=35), Phnom Penh University (PPU, n=46), and MVU (n=91), were administered Khmer versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Duke Health Profile at the beginning and middle of the 1993 school year. Results indicate that the MVU curriculum – which included the Transcendental Meditation program – significantly influenced state anxiety (F=20.04, p<.0001), trait anxiety (F=7.09, p=.001), depression (F=5.31, p=.007), self-esteem (F=2.98, p=.05) and general health (F=4.76, p=.01) of students, while the curricula of IES and PPU did not. These findings suggest that the MVU curriculum played a significant role in alleviating the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and contributed to the personal development of Cambodian undergraduates.

Mental Potential | Psychological CP Vol6 Pg3946 | Intelligence | Non-Verbal Intelligence | 1995

Fergusson LC, Bonsheck AJ, Le Masson G. Vedic science based education and nonverbal intelligence: a preliminary longitudinal study in Cambodia. Higher Education Research and Development 1995 15(1):73-82 This study found that Cambodian University students who learned the Transcendental Meditation Program showed increased non-verbal intelligence in contrast to control students.

Mental Potential | Psychological CPVol 3 Pg1906 | Motor & Perceptual | Increased Self Sufficiency | 1978

Friend KE, Maliszewski M. More on the reliability of the kinesthetic after-effects measure and need for stimulation. Journal of Personality Assessment 1978 42(4):385-391 Two studies involving the kinesthetic after-effects procedure indicate that the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique reduces the need for external stimulation.

Mental Potential | Psychological: | Quality of Life | Enliven Bliss, Eliminate Suffering | 1990

Gelderloos P. Maharishi‘s Vedic Psychology: alleviate suffering by enlivening bliss—reconnect the partial values of life with the wholeness of life. In MGT Kwee (ed.), Psychotherapy, Meditation & Health(pp.215–238). London: East-West Publications, 1990 This paper analyzes how Maharishis Vedic Psychology fulfills the practical goals of psychology and reviews scientific research indicating that Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program improves the physical and mental health of the individual and creates an influence of harmony in society. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi is the modern exponent of the tradition of Vedic masters, whose theme of teaching has been that life is naturally full: life is designed to be a state of supreme happiness, fulfillment and glory. They proclaimed if this is not the daily experience of people, there are a series of natural procedures to bring about this ideal state of living. In this paper an overview has been presented of Maharishi’s approach to the creation of perfect individual mental and physical health. Like a tree is most fundamentally cured from the basic level of its roots, so is human life most effectively treated from its underlying field of pure consciousness. The Transcendental Meditation technique and the TM-Sidhi program, by enlivening pure consciousness, has been shown to improve all diverse aspects of life. With the addition of Maharishi Ayur-Ved additional approaches from the Vedic aspect of life have become available to the health professional. The collective practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi program have been shown to enhance the quality of life of society and the world, creating an optimal state of collective health that nourishes individual life with happiness, progress and fulfillment.

Mental Potential | Psychological CPVol5 Pg 3119 | Development of Personality | TC | 1989

Gelderloos P, Beto ZH. The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and reported experiences of transcendental consciousness. Psychologia 1989 32(2):91-103 Participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program were found to have more frequent experiences of higher states of consciousness than controls.

Mental Potential | Psychological CPVol5 Pg 3107 | Development of Personality | TC Improved Psychological Health | 1987

Gelderloos P, Goddard III PH, Ahlström HH, Jacoby R. Cognitive orientation towards positive values in advanced participants of the TM and TM-Sidhi program. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1987 64(3):1003-1012 Participation in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program produced cumulative improvement in psychological health.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Mental Health | TC Increased experiences of TC = Greater Psychological Health | 1990

Gelderloos P, Hermans HJ, Ahlström HH, Jacoby R. Transcendence and psychological health: studies with long-term participants of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Psychology 1990 124(2):177-197 We investigated the nature of the relationship between experiences of transcendental consciousness and psychological health. In Study 1, three groups with different levels of experience in transcendental meditation (TM) and in the TM-Sidhi program (techniques that have been shown to produce experiences of transcendental consciousness) were studied, using the self-investigation method of Hermans ( 1976). We employed blind interviewers and raters with various attitudes toward TM to minimize the possible impact of a variety of artifacts. Cross-sectionally, experience with TM and the TM-Sidhi program was positively related to a general measure of psychological health (p = .0002); longitudinally, the meditating groups improved more than the control group on the psychological health measure (p < .03). In Study 2, two contrast groups of long-term participants were similar on several confounding variables but differed on physiological indicators of experiences of transcendental consciousness. The groups with the positive physiological indicators showed a trend toward higher scores on the psychological health factor (p = .092), indicating that psychological health may be developed through the systematic cultivation of transcendental meditation and the TM-Sidhi program. Several studies of peak experiences may have been confounded through the use of incorrect operational definitions, according to Mathes, Zevon, Roter, and Joerger ( 1982), who argue that peak experiences have been generally defined as experiences involving intensive positive affect. However, they point out that, according to Maslow, peak experiences are primarily cognitive events, in which transcendental being is experienced, and the associated af­fect would be secondary. Although peak experiences are usually of a positive nature, not all intensely happy experiences are peak experiences. Mathes et al. constructed a Peak scale according to a more cognitive definition of peak experiences. http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=76922375

Mental Potential | Psychological CPVol5 Pg3063 | Intelligence, Learning and Academic Performance, | Field Independence | 1987

Gelderloos P, Lockie RJ, Chuttoorgoon S. Field independence of students at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment and a Montessori school. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1987 65(6):613-614 Grade school children at a school implementing Maharishi’s Unified Feld Based Integrated System of Education scored significantly higher on a test of cognitive and perceptual ability than students in another school.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Cognitive | ADHD | 2008

Grosswald SJ, Stixrud WR, Travis F, Bateh MA. Use of the Transcendental Meditation technique to reduce symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by reducing stress and anxiety: an exploratory study. Current Issues in Education [On-line] 2008 10(2). Medication for ADHD can improve the symptomatology of the disorder for some children, or be marginally or not effective for others; and it can cause life threatening complications. Even for those children who have improvement in symptoms, the improvement is often insufficient. Additionally, it can be hard to obtain consistent drug action throughout the day and into the evening for homework. Importantly, medication does not treat the underlying pathophysiology. The Transcendental Meditation technique is an easily learned and practiced technique. This research suggests that the technique has potential to improve attention, behavior regulation, and executive function by naturally reducing stress and anxiety and improving brain functioning.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Business & Industry | Leadership | 1995

Harung HS, Heaton DP, Alexander CN. A unified theory of leadership: experiences of higher states of consciousness in world-class leaders. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 1995 16:44-59 This study points to evidence that world-class leaders have more frequent experiences of higher state of consciousness than comparison groups.

Mental Potential | Psychological | EEG Brain Integration Scale Business & Industry | Leadership | 2009

Harung H, Travis F, Blank W, Heaton D. Higher development, brain integration, and excellence in leadership. Management Decision 2009 47(6):872-894 This paper reviews research linking leadership to a key and previously under explored variable — the level of integration of psycho-physiological functioning or the leader’s degree of self-development. A model of human development is presented, which covers the psychological, physiological, and sociological dimensions of leadership. Three research projects on world-class leaders, including top-level managers, support our hypothesis that leadership ability is closely related to self-development — we found that higher integration of the electrical brain activity, more mature moral reasoning, and more frequent peak experiences characterize the more accomplished performers. The Brain Integration Scale presented here may be a reliable objective instrument for assessing an individual’s leadership and performance capacity. The high frequency of peak experiences and their relationship to top performance make such gratifying inner experiences important for the business community. This research suggests that practical methods for psycho-physiological refinement — such as the widely researched Transcendental Meditation technique — can be useful in developing more effective leadership.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Business/Creativity/Peak Performance | 2001

Heaton D, Harung HS. Awakening creative intelligence and peak performance: reviving an Asian tradition. Chapter in J Kidd et al. (eds), Human Intelligence Deployment in Asian Business. London: Macmillan, and New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2001

Mental Potential | Psychological | Motor & Perceptual | Field Independence | 1984

Jedrczak A. The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and field independence. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1984 59(7):999-1000 Four studies provide evidence that the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program increases field independence.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Intelligence, Learning and Academic Performance, | TC Increased Creativity and Intelligence | 1985

Jedrczak A, Beresford M, Clements G. The TM-Sidhi program, pure consciousness, creativity and intelligence. Journal of Creative Behavior 1985 19(4):270-275 The number of months practicing the TM-Sidhi program and the clarity of the TM-Sidhi experiences were associated with higher creativity and intelligence.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Intelligence, Learning and Academic Performance, | Length of Time Practicing the TM-Sidhi program; increased benefits | 1986

Jedrczak A, Toomey M, Clements G. The TM-Sidhi program, age, and brief tests of perceptual-motor speed and non-verbal intelligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology 1986 42(1):161-164 Length of time practicing the TM-Sidhi program was associated with better performance on age-related psychological variables: visual memory, perceptual motor speed, and reaction time.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Cognitive | Improved Attention Span | 1996

Jhansi Rani N, Krishna Rao PV. Meditation and attention regulation. Journal of Indian Psychology 1996 14:26-30

Mental Potential | Psychological | Cognitive | Improved Attention | 2000

Jhansi Rani N, Krishna Rao PV. Effects of meditation on attention processes. Journal of Indian Psychology 2000 18:52-60

Mental Potential | Psychological | Intelligence, Learning and Academic Performance, | Post-Graduate Improved Academic Performance | RCT | 1985

Kember P. The Transcendental Meditation technique and postgraduate academic performance.British Journal of Educational Psychology 1985 55:164-166 Post graduate students who learned the Transcendental Meditation technique showed better academic performance than controls after six months.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Cognitive | Improved Academic Performance | 2011

Nidich S, Mjasiri S, Nidich R, Rainforth M, Grant J, Valosek L, Chang W, Zigler RL. Academic achievement and Transcendental Meditation: a study with at-risk urban middle school students.
Education 2011 131(3):556-564
The Transcendental Meditation program was practiced at school twice a day as part of the school’s Quiet Time program for 3 months prior to post-testing. Results indicated improvement for meditating students as compared to controls on English scale scores (p=.002) and math scale scores (p<.001). A greater percentage of meditating students improved at least one performance level in math and English compared to controls ( p values <.01). Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3673/is_3_131/ai_n57274904/?tag=mantle_skin;conten

Mental Potential | Psychological | Intelligence, Learning and Academic Performance, | Improved Quantitative Thinking Scales, Reading, Vocabulary, Language, Work Study Skills (MSAE) | 1989

Nidich SI, Nidich RJ. Increased academic achievement at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment: a replication study. Education 1989 109(3):302-304 Students at a school utilizing Maharishi’s Unified Field Based Integrated System of Education showed enhanced academic achievement on standardized tests of reading, vocabulary, language, work study skills, social studies, literary materials, and quantitative thinking scales.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Intelligence, Learning and Academic Performance, | Increased Math and Reading Ability and Work Study Skills Standardized Tests (MSAE) | 1986

Nidich SI, Nidich RJ, Rainforth M. School effectiveness: achievement gains at the Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment. Education 1986 107:49-54 Students at a school implementing Maharishi’s Unified Field Based Integrated System of Education were found to increase significantly over one academic year on standardized tests of overall academic achievement, mathematical ability, reading ability and work study skills.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Cognitive: Intelligence, Learning Academic Performance | Intellectual Development in the Elderly | 2005

Nidich SI, Schneider RH, Nidich RJ, Foster G, Sharma H, Salerno J, Goodman R, Alexander CN. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation program on intellectual development in community-dwelling older adults.  Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):217-226 This study examined whether practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique can have a beneficial effect on the intellectual development of elderly adults. Participants (N=41) were 18 older adults who were long time practitioners of the TM program and 23 non-meditating controls, between the ages of 60 and 74. Findings indicate that those practicing the TM technique exhibited significantly higher levels of fluid reasoning, verbal intelligence, long term memory and speed of processing than controls. Further analysis showed significant correlations with lipid peroxide level for both reasoning ability and memory, suggesting a possible link between cognitive functioning and free radical activity in the elderly.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | Self-Actualization | 1973

Nidich SI, Seeman W, Dreskin T. Influence of Transcendental Meditation: a replication. Journal of Counseling Psychology 1973 20(6):565-566 Using Shostram’s Personal Inventory (POI) changes on several measures in the direction of self-actualization were shown to occur in subjects practicing the TM technique after just 10 weeks.

Mental Potential | Psychological CPVol 2 Pg1107 | Development of Personality | Positive Self Concept | 1977

Nystul MS, Garde M. Comparison of self-concepts of Transcendental Meditators and nonmeditators. Psychological Reports 1977 41(5):303-306 Subjects practicing the TM technique showed a more positive self concept than controls.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Cognitive | TC+ | 2000

Orme-Johnson DW. An overview of Charles Alexander’s contribution to psychology: developing higher states of consciousness in the individual and the society. Journal of Adult Development 2000 7(4):199-215 This paper reviews over 80 publications of Charles N. (“Skip”) Alexander. Skip theoretically showed that the four higher states of consciousness described by Maharishi’s Vedic psychology logically extend the developmental sequence delineated by 20th century psychology. His empirical research found that the Transcendental Meditation® technique provides the direct experience of transcendental consciousness (the first higher state, which is the silent basis of the mind) and that this practice accelerates development in children, “unfreezes” development in prison inmates, advances ego development in adults, increases productivity in businesses, decreases blood pressure, increases longevity, effectively treats substance abuse, and reduces prison recidivism. Skip and colleagues were the first to discover the EEG signature of cosmic consciousness (the second higher state), and he showed that developmental advances in individuals impact the larger society via a common field of collective consciousness, including decreasing armed conflicts and improving the quality of life.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | TC + The Cosmic Psych | 1997

Orme-Johnson DW, Zimmerman E, Hawkins MA. Maharishi’s Vedic Psychology: the science of the cosmic psyche. In HSR Kao, D Sinha (eds), Asian Perspectives on Psychology (pp.282-308). New Delhi, India: Sage Publications, 1997 This 27-page book chapter is an overview of Maharishi’s understanding of higher states of consciousness, presented as a system of psychology, Maharishi’s Vedic Psychology. It addresses the need to answer fundamental questions about the nature of the self, its relation to the universe, its stages of evolution, and the practical implications of developing consciousness for all areas of life. It reviews precedents in Eastern and Western cultures, the modern social sciences, and quantum physics for the view that the fundamental reality of natural law is an infinite field of consciousness, what Maharishi calls the Cosmic Psyche. It proposes that the Cosmic Psyche is also the fundamental level of the human mind, experienced by the individual in the silent level of transcendental consciousness, which can be systematically accessed through Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation program (TM). It reviews research on the physiological uniqueness of transcendental consciousness as a highly coherent, restfully-alert fourth major state of consciousness, distinct from waking, dreaming, and sleep. It outlines how Maharishi’s Vedic Psychology delineates a systematic sequential unfolding of three stabilized higher states of consciousness—Cosmic Consciousness, God Consciousness, and Unity Consciousness—for a total of Seven States of Consciousness. It presents scientific evidence that the growth of higher states of consciousness by means of TM practice is due to normalizing stresses in the nervous system during the deep rest TM provides. It presents evidence that the growth of higher states of consciousness is the logical extension of the developmental sequence described by 20th century psychology. The chapter concludes by presenting Maharishi’s theory and research on collective consciousness, including over 50 studies showing that when as few as 1% of a population practice the TM program, or the square root of 1% the more advanced TM-Sidhi program, that negative trends in society, such as crime and war, decrease.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | Reduced Anxiety Alienation & Disturbances | 1974

Penner WJ, Zingle HW, Dyck R, Truch S. Does an in-depth Transcendental Meditation course effect change in the personalities of the participants? Western Psychologist 1974 4:104-111 Subjects attending a one-month residence course, showed reduced anxiety, increased normality of religious orientation, a greater interest in academic activities, less social alienation, and fewer emotional disturbances.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Cognitive: Intelligence, Learning Academic Performance | TM in Middle School | 2006

Rosaen C, Benn R. The experience of Transcendental Meditation in middle school students: a qualitative report. Explore 2006 2:422-425

Mental Potential | Psychological | Dev of Personality Productivity Quality of Life | Leadership | 2000

Schmidt-Wilk J. Consciousness-based management development: case studies of international top management teams. Journal of Transnational Management Development 2000 5(3):61-85 Training in meditation is being introduced into corporations worldwide, yet analyses of programs are rare. Case studies document the experiences of members of three top management teams who learned the Transcendental Meditation® program in corporate-supported programs and suggest a new trend in management development: Consciousness-Based℠ Management Development. This psychophysiological approach, which allows managers to access inner latent capacities, appears to meet criteria described in the literature for an effective management and team development program. The comprehensive changes reported are said to result from unfolding the organizing power of Natural Law in the awareness of the manager.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Cognitive | Spirituality in Management Education Higher States of Consciousness | 2000

Schmidt-Wilk J, Heaton DP, Steingard D. Higher education for higher consciousness: Maharishi University of Management as a model for spirituality in management education. Journal of Management Education 2000 25(5):580-611 The system of education at Maharishi University of Management (MUM) provides a model for management educators seeking to understand and teach spirituality. It locates transcendental consciousness—“pure spirituality”—at the basis of the universe and the human mind, experienced through the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program. Disciplines are taught as expressions of one unified field of consciousness. This integrated approach develops students who express “applied spirituality”— acting for the positive transformation of the quality of life for all. Research on educational outcomes at MUM gives evidence of cognitive, affective, and moral development in students. The authors offer suggestions for educators at other institutions.

Mental Potential | Psychological CP Vol 1 Pg 417 | Development of Personality | Self-Actualization | 1972

Seeman W, Nidich S, Banta T. Influence of Transcendental Meditation on a measure of self-actualization. Journal of Counseling Psychology 1972 19(3):184-187 Using Shostram’s Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) People practicing the TM technique after just 2 months showed increased self-actualization as compared to controls.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Affective | Decreased Depression and Anxiety | RCT | 1997

Sheppard DH, Staggers F, John L. The effects of a stress management program in a high security government agency. Anxiety, Stress and Coping 1997 10(4):341-350 The data suggests that a significant reduction in trait anxiety and depression values occurred over the three month treatment period in the group practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. There was also a significant drop in state anxiety from baseline in the TM group. After a three year lapse without ongoing program or instructor support, state anxiety, trait anxiety, depression and self-concept all measured significantly improved in the TM group. There was also a significant drop in state anxiety from baseline in the TM group.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Cognitive | Increased IQ | RCT (3) | 2001

So KT, Orme-Johnson DW. Three randomized experiments on the holistic longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence 2001 29(5):419-440 Three studies on 362 high school students at three different schools in Taiwan tested the hypothesis that regular practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique for 15-20 minutes twice a day for 6 to 12 months would improve cognitive ability. The same seven variables were used in all studies: Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP); Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI); Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT); Univariate testing showed that TM practice produced significant effects on all variables compared to no-treatment controls (Ps ranged from .035 to <.0001). Napping for equivalent periods of time as TM practice had no effect. Contemplation meditation improved inspection time and embedded figures, but not the other variables. The TM technique was superior to contemplation meditation on five variables. The effect sizes for TM practice were in the order of the variables listed above.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Cognitive | Increased Cognitive Performance | 2003

Sridevi K, Krishna Rao PV. Temporal effects of meditation on cognitive style. Journal of Indian Psychology 2003 21:38-51

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | Improved Personality Traits | 1998

Sridevi K, Krishna Rao PV. Temporal effects of meditation and personality. Psychological Studies1998 43:95-105

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | Analysis of Subjects interested in TM | 1973

Stek RJ, Bass BA. Personal adjustment and perceived locus of control among students interested in meditation. Psychological Reports 1973 32(3):1019-1022 People interested in learning the TM program were neither more self-actualized nor more externally controlled than average.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Cognitive | Improved Mindfulness | RCT | 2009

Tanner MA, Travis F, Gaylord-King C, Haaga DAF, Grosswald S, Schneider RH. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology 2009 65(6):574-589 Mindfulness is associated with low levels of neuroticism, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, as well as high levels of self-esteem and satisfaction with life (Brown & Ryan, 2003). As part of a 3-month randomized wait list controlled trial of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program on university students (N5295), we examined the impact of TM practice on mindfulness as measured by the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004). A repeated measures ANOVA on total KIMS scores showed a significant time treatment interaction, with the TM participants reporting greater increases in mindfulness than the wait list participants. All KIMS sub-scales were positively intercorrelated at pretreatment, and there were no differences over time or as a function of treatment condition in sub-scale intercorrelations. Therefore, previously published findings of a positive correlation between subscales measuring the skills of observing and accepting without judgment one’s inner experiences only among those with meditation experience may have reflected a self-selection effect rather than a change in the relation of these mindfulness components resulting directly from meditation practice. Despite its limitations, we believe that the research reported in this article makes two meaningful contributions. First, it appears that the interrelations among mindfulness components differ for meditators and non-meditators, but this may be a function of interest in meditation rather than a result of the practice itself. Second, the TM program can lead to increased mindfulness.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Intelligence, Learning & Academic Achievement | Increased Intelligence Reduced Neuroticism | 1975

Tjoa A. Increased intelligence and reduced neuroticism through the Transcendental Meditation program. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie (Behavior: Journal of Psychology) 1975 3:167-182Development of non-verbal fluid intelligence was brought about by the practice of the TM technique. TM also brought about a sharp drop in neuroticism without professional psychotherapeutic intervention.

Mental Potential | Psychological CPVol 3 Pg1972 | Intelligence, Learning & Academic Achievement | Increased Creativity | 1979

Travis FT. Creative thinking and the Transcendental Meditation technique. Journal of Creative Behavior 1979 13(3):169-180 The Transcendental Meditation program was found to improve creativity as measured by figural flexibility and originality and verbal fluency. Five months after learning the TM technique this group scored consistently higher than the control group. The gains were significant on the scores of figural flexibility (p<.006), figural originality (p<.0005), and verbal fluency (p<.02). The relatively greater improvement on figural creativity than on verbal creativity suggests that the practice of the TM technique had a particularly marked effect on “primary process creativity.”

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | Description of TM technique | 2001

Travis FT. Transcendental Meditation technique. In WE Craighead, CB Nemeroff (eds), The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 3rd edition (pp.1705-1706). New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2001

Description of TM Practice

TM practice is a dynamic process characterized by: (a) movement of attention from the active, surface level of thinking and perception to the more silent and abstract levels of thought; (b) transcendence of the subtlest thinking level to a state of fully awake self-awareness (called Transcendental Consciousness, or Atman, in Sanskrit); and (c) movement of attention back to more active levels (Wallace, 1986). These three phases, which can by physiologically distinguished (Travis & Wallace, 1997), cycle many times in each TM session, and define a state of “restful alertness”—deep rest for the body and increased alertness for the mind. The state of restful alertness releases mental & physical stress.

Transcendental Consciousness is the defining experience of TM practice. Phenomenologically, Transcendental Consciousness is characterized by “silence”, “unboundedness,” and “the absences of time, space, and body-sense” (Travis & Pearson, 200). Transcendental Consciousness is described as a state of self-awareness (subjects are awake during this state and can describe its nature afterward) without customary waking processing and contents.

This description of Transcendental Consciousness is admittedly outside of the usual paradigm of waking experiences. Since William James, the prevailing Western view has been that conscious awareness is always mixed with “mental-instances” in consciousness (Ferrari, 1998)—that is, consciousness is never found without its processes or objects of experiences. However, the experience of Transcendental Consciousness cannot be disregarded simply because it is outside current paradigms. It is a direct experience—not merely a conceptual reality—with defining physiological characteristics: (a) apneustic breathing (slow prolonged inhalation) for 10 to 40 sec (Kesterson & Clinch, 1989); (b) autonomic orienting at the onset of breath changes (Travis & Wallace, 1997); (c) increased EEG coherence; and (d) 1.0 Hz increases in the frequency of peak power (Travis & Wallace, 1997).

These unique subjective and objective markers of Transcendental Consciousness support its description as a fourth major states of consciousness (Maharishi, 1963), in addition to the three commonly experienced states of waking, sleeping, and dreaming. Repeated experience of Transcendental Consciousness, followed by daily activity, leads to the integration of this silent alert state with ongoing waking, sleeping, and dreaming processes, forming a sequential unfolding of three higher states of consciousness (Maharishi, 1963). Initial findings suggest unique EEG patterns (Mason et al., 1997) and unique cortical preparatory response patterns (Travis & Tecce, 1998) in subjects reporting the experience of cosmic consciousness, the first of these three higher states.

Comparison with Other Practices

Some researchers have questioned whether effects produced during TM practice are common to all meditation and relaxation techniques (Holmes, 1984). Using objective quantitative methods, five meta-analyses suggest that TM practice is fundamentally different from other techniques. Compared to eyes-closed rest, other meditation techniques, and relaxation responses, these meta-analyses found that TM practice results in: (a) significantly larger reductions in anxiety (N= 141 studies) (Eppley, Abrams, & Shear, 1989); (b) significantly lower breath rates, skin conductance levels, and plasma lactate levels (N= 31 studies) (Dillbeck & Orme-Johnson, 1987); (c) significantly higher levels of self-actualization (N= 42 studies) (Alexander, Rainforth, & Gelderloos, 1991); (d) significantly greater reductions in the use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes (N= 198 studies) (Alexander, Robinson, & Rainforth, 1994); and (e) significantly greater reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (Barnes, Schneider, Alexander, & Staggers, 1997).

Application to Individual and Society Issues

TM practice has practical benefits for:

Health. In comparison to matched controls, TM subjects (N= 2,000) showed 50% lower inpatient and outpatient medical use over a 5-year period, and lower sickness rates in 17 disease categories, including 87% fewer hospitalizations for heart disease (Orme-Johnson, 1987).

Elderly care. A randomized study with 73 institutionalized elderly people (81 years of age) indicated that practice of the TM technique reduced blood pressure and cognitive decline (over 3 months) and mortality rate (over 15 years) compared to mental relaxation, mindfulness training, or no treatment (Alexander et al., 1996).

Prison rehabilitation. California inmates (N= 259) who learned the TM technique had a 40% decrease in recidivism rate over a 5-year period compared to controls matched on social history and on use of training programs while in prison (Bleick & Abrams, 1987).

Business. A 5-month longitudinal study (N= 800) conducted by the Japanese National Institute of Health found that employees practicing the TM technique showed significant decreases in physical health complaints, anxiety, insomnia, and smoking compared to controls from the same industrial site (Haratani & Henmi, 1990).

Mental Potential | Psychological | EEG | TC+ | 2006

Travis FT. From I to I: concepts of Self on an object-referral/ self-referral continuum. In AP Prescott (ed.), The Concept of Self in Psychology. New York: Nova Publishing, 2006  Concepts of self in the 100-year history of psychology can be placed along an object-referral/self-referral continuum. For instance, William James’s self-as-known, or “me,” is more object-referral and his self-as-knower, or “I,” is more self-referral. Current neural imaging studies have investigated 3rd person-perspectives of self (object-referral) and 1st person-perspectives of self (self-referral).   The object-referral/self-referral continuum is based on analysis of individuals practicing the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique. This meditation technique from the Vedic tradition of India takes the attention from surface perception and thinking, to more abstract levels of thought, to a level of pure self-awareness at the source of thought. Our research has yielded subjective and objective markers of the experience of pure self-awareness or content-free self-awareness. Subjectively, pure self-awareness is characterized by the absence of time, space and body sense. Time, space and body-sense are the framework for waking experiences. During the experience of pure self-awareness, this framework that gives meaning to waking consciousness is absent. Objectively, pure self-awareness is characterized by spontaneous periods, 10-40 sec long, of slow inhalation along with heightened brain wave coherence. These data support the Vedic descriptions of pure self-awareness as “the fourth”—a state of consciousness in addition to waking, dreaming and sleeping. Our research has also yielded subjective and objective characteristics of the permanent integration of pure self-awareness with customary experiences during waking, dreaming, and sleeping. This state has been traditionally called enlightenment. A content analysis of inner experiences of these subjects and two comparison groups has yielded descriptions of the ends of this object-referral/self-referral continuum. On the object-referral end, individuals described themselves in terms of cognitive and behavioral processes. They exhibited lower values of the consciousness factor, lower frontal EEG coherence during tasks, lower alpha and higher gamma power during tasks, and less efficient cortical preparatory. In contrast, individuals reporting the experience of enlightenment described themselves as an abstract continuum underlying thought, feeling and action— self-referral descriptions. The experience of self-awareness has been written with a capital “S”—Self— to differentiate from more active experiences. These subjects exhibited higher values of the consciousness factor, higher frontal coherence, higher alpha and lower gamma power during tasks, and heightened cortical response to tasks. This object-referral/self-referral continuum describes the progressive de-embedding of the Self from the machinery of perception, thought, and behavior. In the coming century, psychology should take advantage of meditation technologies—technologies of consciousness—to explore more expanded experiences of Self to understand who we are and what it means to be fully human.

Mental Potential | Physiological | EEG | TC Unique State of Restful Alertness | 2009

Travis FT. Relationship between meditation practice and transcendent states of consciousness.
Biofeedback 2009
Research demonstrates that transcendental experiences during the Transcendental Meditation technique are characterized by distinct subjective and objective patterns. Subjectively, the framework for understanding waking experience— time, space, and body sense— is absent during transcendental experiences. Physiologically, breathe patterns, autonomic patterns, EEG patterns, and patterns of cerebral metabolic rate distinguish transcendental experiences from eyes-closed rest. Transcendental experiences give a broader perspective of life. They foster the development of an inner anchor of self-awareness that allows anyone to better deal with high stress and demanding situations. Developing one’s sense of self is the basis for recovery from mental instability, substance abuse, addictions and criminal behavior.

Mental Potential | Physiological | EEG | Brain Functioning, Ethical Behavior, Spiritual Experience | 2011

Travis F. Brain functioning as the ground for spiritual experiences and ethical behavior. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 2009 78(5):26-32 The author contends that brain functioning is fundamental to both spiritual experiences and the complex decisions that law enforcement officers must make every day. In addition, he explores how spiritual experiences can reverse the negative impact of noxious ones on brain functioning and enhance individual well-being.

Mental Potential | Physiological | EEG | TC+ Comparing TM to the TM Sidhi Program Simultaneous Specificity and Holistic Functioning | 2011

Travis F. Comparison of coherence, amplitude, and eLORETA patterns during transcendental meditation and TM-Sidhi practice. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2011 81(3):198-202 This random-assignment study compared coherence, amplitude, and eLORETA patterns during practice of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and the TM-Sidhi programs. The TM technique involves systematic transcending of contents of experience to a state of pure consciousness. The TM-Sidhi program involves sanyama—the simultaneous experience of dhārānā (fixity), dhyāna (transcending) and samādhi (pure consciousness). Thirty-two channel EEG was recorded from experienced TM subjects randomly assigned to two consecutive 10-min TM sessions or to a 10-min TM session followed by 10-min TM-Sidhi practice. Compared to TM practice, TM-Sidhi practice was characterized by higher frontal alpha1 and beta1 amplitudes, and eLORETA-identified sources of alpha1 EEG in right- hemisphere object recognition areas including the right parahippocampus gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, lingual gyrus, and inferior and medial temporal cortices. These cortical areas are involved in specific/holistic representation of words. The observed brain patterns support the descriptions of sanyama as including both specificity (sutras or verses), as suggested by higher frontal beta1 EEG amplitude and by eLORETA sources in right-hemisphere object- recognition areas, and holistic experience (pure consciousness) as suggested by higher frontal alpha1 EEG amplitude. These EEG patterns fit the complex description of sanyama.

Mental Potential | Physiological | EEG | TC+ | 2004

Travis FT, Arenander A, DuBois D. Psychological and physiological characteristics of a proposed object-referral/self-referral continuum of self-awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 2004 13(2):401-420 This research extends and confirms recent brainwave findings that distinguished an individuals sense-of- self along an Object-referral/Self-referral Continuum of self-awareness. Subjects were interviewed and were given tests measuring inner/outer orientation, moral reasoning, anxiety, and personality. Scores on the psychological tests were factor analyzed. The first unrotated PCA (Principle Component Analysis) component of the test scores yielded a ‘‘Consciousness Factor,’’ analogous to the intelligence ‘‘g’’ factor, which accounted for over half of the variance among groups. Analysis of unstructured interviews of these subjects revealed fundamentally different descriptions of self-awareness. Individuals who described themselves in terms of concrete cognitive and behavioral processes (predominantly Object-referral mode) exhibited lower Consciousness Factor scores, lower frontal EEG coherence, lower alpha and higher gamma power during tasks, and less efficient cortical preparatory responses (contingent negative variation). In contrast, individuals who described themselves in terms of an abstract, independent sense-of-self underlying thought, feeling and action (predominantly Self-referral mode) exhibited higher Consciousness Factor scores, higher frontal coherence, higher alpha and lower gamma power during tasks, and more efficient cortical responses. These data suggest that definable states of brain activity and subjective experiences exist, in addition to waking, sleeping and dreaming, that may be operationally defined by psychological and physiological measures along a continuum of Object-referral/Self-referral Continuum of self-awareness. Non-TM Group: Self is identified with thoughts, feelings and actions; Short-term practitioners of the TM technique: Self is the director of thoughts, feelings, and actions; Long-term practitioners of the TM technique reporting pure consciousness underlying waking, dreaming and sleeping: Self is independent of and underlying thoughts, feelings and actions

Mental Potential | Physiological | EEG | Brain Maturation and Levels of Development | 2011

Travis FT, Brown S. My brain made me do it: brain maturation and levels of self-development. In AH Pfaffenberger, PW Marko, T Greening (eds), The Postconventional Personality: Perspectives on Higher Development. (pp. 23-38) New York: SUNY Press, 2011 Research at the Center for Brain, Consciousness and Cognition has focused on investigating brain patterns of higher states of consciousness in meditating individuals. These experiences are suggestive of the fourth tier of human development, as defined in Cook-Greuter’s (2000) full-spectrum model of development. Her model comprises the three tiers investigated in life-span development and quantified by Loevinger’s Sentence Completion Test (SCT)-pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional and a fourth tier that is post-representational. Pre-conventional and conventional tiers include development from infancy to adulthood. At the post-conventional tier, individuals question norms and assumptions; they are aware of interpretation as an inevitable aspect of all meaning-making. They consider networks of interacting variables and multiple points of view. Post-representational stages are post-symbolic, non-discursive, and involve ego transcendence. Post-representational experiences can be considered to be higher than post-conventional in that they (a) are at least as far beyond conceptual or representational thought as symbolic representation is beyond the sensorimotor domain; (b) require major neurophysiological maturation; (c) resolve the fundamental and epistemological constraint that the reflective knower cannot know himself or herself; (d) not only are nonrepresentational but post-representational; and (e) are functionally higher-more adaptive and stable, more equilibrated, and characterized by more veridical perception (Alexander et al., 1990). Although Western culture prizes linear, discursive, rational thought, meditation traditions from the East-the Vedic tradition of India (Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, 1969, hereafter referred to as Maharishi), and the Buddhist traditions of Tibet (Zelazo, Moscovitch, & Thompson, 2007), China (Austin, 2006), and Japan (Shear, 2006)-provide systematic meditation procedures that lead to post-representational experiences. For instance, in the Buddhist tradition, a meditative state is described as simple awareness without active focus or discursive thought (Lutz, Dunne, & Davidson, 2007); and in the Vedic tradition, an experience during practice of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique occurs that is called pure consciousness-where consciousness is open to itself (Maharishi, 1999). Pure consciousness is beyond the division of subject and object. It is completely differentiated from all active levels of mind, including the individual ego, and is described as the absence of time, space, and body sense with an expanded sense of self-awareness (Maharishi, 1969; Travis & Pearson, 2000). These postsymbolic experiences are direct modes of experience in which knower and known merge, and the personal self-sense is transcended.

Mental Potential | Physiological | EEG | Self Referral Default Brain State | 2010

Travis FT, Haaga DH, Hagelin JS, Tanner M, Arenander A, Nidich S, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Rainforth M, Schneider RH. A self-referential default brain state: patterns of coherence, power, and eLORETA sources during eyes-closed rest and the Transcendental Meditation practice. Cognitive Processing 2010 11(1):21-30 In this random assignment study, patterns of alpha1 power, coherence, and eLORETA distinguished TM practice from eyes-closed rest. The areas of alpha1 activation during the TM practice overlapped areas in the default mode network, suggesting a relation between TM experiences, self-referential experiences and intrinsic default modes of brain function. The subjective experiences during Transcendental Meditation practice may be as foundational to the eyes-closed resting default state, as eyes-closed rest is to normal task-oriented cognitive activity. Activation of a default mode network (DMN) including frontal and parietal midline structures varies with cognitive load, being more active during low-load tasks and less active during high-load tasks requiring executive control. Meditation practices entail various degrees of cognitive control. Thus, DMN activation patterns could give insight into the nature of meditation practices. This 10-week random assignment study compared theta2, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2 and gamma EEG coherence, power, and eLORETA cortical sources during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice in 38 male and female college students, average age 23.7 years. Significant brainwave differences were seen between groups. Compared to eyes-closed rest, TM practice led to higher alpha1 frontal log-power, and lower beta1 and gamma frontal and parietal log-power; higher frontal and parietal alpha1 inter-hemispheric coherence and higher frontal and frontal-central beta2 intra-hemispheric coherence. eLORETA analysis identified sources of alpha1 activity in midline cortical regions that overlapped with the DMN. Greater activation in areas that overlap the DMN during TM practice suggests that meditation practice may lead to a foundational or ‘ground’ state of cerebral functioning that may underlie eyes-closed rest and more focused cognitive processes.

Mental Potential | Physiological | EEG | Reduced Stress in College Students | RCT | 2009

Travis F, Haaga DA, Hagelin J, Tanner M, Nidich S, Gaylord-King C, Grosswald S, Rainforth M, Schneider RH. Effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on brain functioning and stress reactivity in college students. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2009 71(2):170-176 This randomized controlled trial investigated effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice on Brain Integration Scale scores (broadband frontal coherence, power ratios, and preparatory brain responses), electrodermal habituation to 85-dB tones, sleepiness, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and P300 latencies in 50 college students. After pretest, students were randomly assigned to learn TM immediately or learn after the 10-week posttest. There were no significant pretest group differences. A MANOVA of students with complete data (N=38) yielded significant group vs treatment interactions for Brain Integration Scale scores, sleepiness, and habituation rates (all pb.007). Post hoc analyses revealed significant increases in Brain Integration Scale scores for Immediate-start students but decreases in Delayed-start students; significant reductions in sleepiness in Immediate-start students with no change in Delayed-start students; and no changes in habituation rates in Immediate-start students, but significant increases in Delayed-start students. These data support the value of TM practice for college students. Significant differences in Brain Integration Scale scores, sleepiness, and habituation rates were seen after 10 weeks of Transcendental Meditation practice. Lower sleepiness and faster habituation rates were negatively correlated with higher scores on the Brain Integration Scale. This study reports effects of Transcendental Meditation practice compared to wait-listed controls. This study is the first random assignment study of effects of Transcendental Meditation practice on brain and physiological functioning in college students. These results replicate increases in Brain Integration Scale scores reported in a one-year longitudinal study using participants as their own controls (Travis and Arenander, 2006), and in a six-month longitudinal study comparing students practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique to matched controls (Travis, 2002). These two earlier studies tested students at Maharishi University of Management, where twice-daily meditation practice is part of the curriculum. The current random-assignment study extends these findings to include effects of Transcendental Meditation practice in meditating students following a more typical college curriculum. The variables that changed significantly are functionally related. The Brain Integration Scale includes broadband frontal coherence. Prefrontal executive areas control electrodermal habituation (Hugdahl, 1998; Critchley et al., 2000). The efficient physiology responds initially to any novel stimulus, but then stops responding, once the stimulus has been recognized as being non-threatening. The posttest was recorded one week before the end of the term. It was a time of high pressure and stress for the students. While the Delayed-start participants showed the expected increased in sympathetic reactivity under high stress, the sympathetic reactivity of the meditating students remained low. Transcendental Meditation practice seemed to buffer effects of the high stress of finals’ week. This replicates findings of faster habituation rates and also faster recovery from stressful stimuli in TM participants (Orme-Johnson, 1973), and fMRI findings of lower thalamic and lower total brain activation during a temperature stress in long-term TM participants (Orme-Johnson et al., 2006). Prefrontal cortices also guide timing and magnitude of brain preparatory responses (Gomez et al., 2007). Higher preparatory responses during simple trials reflect efficient use of resources— participants knew the correct response after the first stimulus, and so could begin preparatory processes. In contrast, during the choice trials, participants did not know the correct response after the first stimulus and so should remain balanced. The control group had higher preparatory responses during the choice trials, which did not indicate efficient use of brain resources.

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality Higher States of Consciousness | TC | 2005

Travis FT, Munly K, Olsen T, Sorflaten J. The significance of Transcendental Consciousness for addressing the ‘hard’ problem of consciousness. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):123-135 This paper considers the implication of experiences during practice of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique on the so called “hard” problem of consciousness: Why perceptual and cognitive functions are accompanied by (inner) conscious experience. TM practice leads to the experience of self-referral awareness – silent pure consciousness without customary processing and content. Pure consciousness is described as silent, unbounded and by the absence of time, space and body sense. Physiologically this experience is associated with high EEG coherence, breath quiescence, autonomic orienting, and increases in the frequency of peak EEG power. Pure consciousness may be a foundational state that adds the quality of “conscious” to experience when it combines, through the “beam” of attention, with perceptual, cognitive and affective processes.

Mental Potential | Physiological | EEG | TM and Reading Sanskrit | 2001

Travis FT, Olson T, Egenes T, Gupta HK. Physiological patterns during practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique compared with patterns while reading Sanskrit and a modern language. International Journal of Neuroscience 2001 109(1/2):71-80 This study tested the prediction that reading Vedic Sanskrit texts, without knowledge of their meaning, produces a distinct physiological state. We measured EEG, breath rate, heart rate and skin conductance during: (1) 15-min Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice; (2) 15-min reading verses of the Bhagavad Gita in Sanskrit; and (3) 15-min reading the same verses translated in German, Spanish, or French. The two reading conditions were randomly counterbalanced, and subjects filled out experience forms between each block to reduce carryover effects. Skin conductance levels significantly decreased during both reading Sanskrit and TM practice, and increased slightly during reading a modern language. Alpha power and coherence were significantly higher when reading Sanskrit and during TM practice, compared to reading modern languages. Similar physiological patterns when reading Sanskrit and during practice of the TM technique suggest that the state gained during TM practice may be integrated with active mental processes by reading Sanskrit.

Mental Potential | Physiological | EEG | TC+ | 2002

Travis FT, Tecce J, Arenander A, Wallace RK. Patterns of EEG coherence, power and contingent negative variation characterize the integration of transcendental and waking states. Biological Psychology 2002 61(3):293-319 Long-term meditating subjects report that transcendental experiences (TE), which first occurred during their Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice, now subjectively co-exist with waking and sleeping states. To investigate neurophysiological correlates of this integrated state, we recorded EEG in these subjects and in two comparison groups during simple and choice contingent negative variation (CNV) tasks. In individuals reporting the integration of the transcendent with waking and sleeping, CNV was higher in simple but lower in choice trials, and 6-12 Hz EEG amplitude and broadband frontal EEG coherence were higher during choice trials. Increased EEG amplitude and coherence, characteristic of TM practice, appeared to become a stable EEG trait during CNV tasks in these subjects. These significant EEG differences may underlie the inverse patterns in CNV amplitude seen between groups. An ‘Integration Scale,’ constructed from these cortical measures, may characterize the transformation in brain dynamics corresponding to increasing integration of the transcendent with waking and sleeping. This description of the co-existence of two qualitatively different states*/a silent continuum of inner awareness along with the ‘flurry’ of daily activity*/is consistent with EEG patterns of subjects reporting this integrated experience. For example, when these subjects are asleep, higher alpha EEG amplitude, which is indicative of wakefulness, is observed during Stage three and four delta sleep (Banquet and Sailhan, 1974; Mason et al., 1997). Also, during eyes-open resting, increased alpha EEG coherence is seen in subjects reporting more frequent TE compared with subjects reporting less frequent experiences (Travis, 1991). Thus, self-reports of integration of the transcendent with waking and sleeping states correlate with objective reports of the integration of EEG patterns normally seen during TE in meditation (high frontal alpha EEG power and coherence (Travis, 2001; Wallace, 1970)) with those seen during waking (low voltage, mixed frequency) and sleeping (delta activity). In summary, these data suggest that distinct patterns of EEG coherence, EEG amplitude, and late CNV amplitude are associated with the progressive integration of the transcendent with waking and sleeping states. These results indicate the efficacy of objective measures for characterizing the growth of subjective experiences. The brain-based Integration Scale, resulting from this research, is a preliminary scale. It accounted for 55% of the variance in-group membership.

Mental Potential | Physiological | Physiological Efficiency & Stability | Faster Reactions and Academic Performance Related | 1984

Wallace RK, Orme-Johnson DW, Mills PJ, Dillbeck MC. Academic achievement and the paired Hoffman reflex in students practicing meditation. International Journal of Neuroscience 1984 24 (3/4):261-266 The paired H-reflex recovery was found to be correlated with academic performance in participants in the Transcendental Meditation program. Previous studies have shown that clear experiences during the TM and TM-Sidhi program are correlated with faster H-reflex recovery, as well as with higher EEG coherence, greater creativity, and more flexible performance on concept learning. Taken together, these findings, emphasize the intimate relationship between the experience of higher states of consciousness and improvements in physiological and psychological functioning.

Mental Potential | Psychological: | Cognitive | Word of Wisdom | 2005

Warner TQ. Awareness and cognition: the role of awareness training in child development. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):47-64 This study examined the role of awareness in cognition and the impact of training awareness. Two groups of children ages 5 to 11 were studied (N=126). One group received training in the form of either the Transcendental Meditation technique or the Word of Wisdom technique, a related technique for children under ten years of age (N=60). The main variable were two mental capacities defined in terms of awareness. Working Memory and Attention, and Cognitive Competence, defined in terms of Piaget’s conservation tasks. Working Memory and Attention are two capacities acknowledge to be fundamental to human thinking. The importance of this study’s findings cannot be overstated when we examine them in the light of two developmental phenomena. One development between the ages of 5 and 10 is normally very rapid, as seen for example in conservation performance. Two all attempts to facilitate cognitive growth consist of lengthy and elaborate intervention procedures such as conservation training and educational enrichment programs. This study indicates that the already rapid cognitive development can be further enhanced through simple procedures that take only a few minutes twice a day. This is an astounding finding, even if we consider only the most researched variable, the verbal IQ where age was partialed out (p=<.0001).

Mental Potential | Psychological | Development of Personality | Self-Actualization | Meta | 1991

Alexander CN, Rainforth MV, Gelderloos P. Transcendental Meditation, self-actualization, and psychological health: a conceptual overview and statistical meta-analysis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 1991 6(5):189-247 This meta-analysis of all research on the effects of the TM program on self-actualization, in comparison to other techniques found that the Transcendental Meditation program had 3 times the effect size of other procedures in enhancing self actualization and it’s other components (emotional maturity, integrated perspective on self and world, and resilient sense of self.) The Transcendental Meditation program was also found to lead to significant improvements on each of the twelve scales of the most common test of self-actualization. In a statistical review of 42 independent research results the TM program was found to be three times as effective as other meditation and relaxation procedures in increasing self-actualization an overall measure of positive mental health and personal development. Further analysis revealed that the technique is exceptionally effective in developing three independent components of this dimension: emotional maturity, a resilient sense of self, and a positive integrated perspective on ourselves and the the world Increased Self Actualization through Transcendental Meditation in Contrast to other Procedures as Demonstrated by Meta-Analysis; Improvement in the Measured Components of Self-Actualization: Increased Time Competence (Ability to Live in the Present; Ability to Connect Past, Present, and Future Meaningfully); Increased Inner-Directedness (Independence; Self-Supportiveness); Increase Self-Actualizing Value (Holding Values of Self-Actualizing People); Increased Existentiality (Flexibility in Application of Values); Increased Spontaneity; Increased Self-Regard; Increased Self-Acceptance; Increased Nature of Man Constructive (See Man as Essentially Good); Increased Synergy (Sees Opposites of Life as Meaningfully Related); Increased Acceptance of Feelings; Increased Capacity for Intimate Contact (Warm Interpersonal Relationships); Increased Emotional Maturity; Increased Integrative Perspective on Self and World; Increased Resilient Sense of Self

Mental Potential | Physiological | EEG | Yogic Flying: Brain Mapping | 1988

Orme-Johnson DW, Gelderloos P. Topographic brain mapping during Yogic Flying. International Journal of Neuroscience 1988 38(3/4):427-434 Voluntary focal activity typically disrupts EEG alpha activity. This experiment tested the hypothesis that the alpha wave would not be disrupted during “Yogic Flying” (YF), a TM-Sidhi technique that produces movement of the body such as hopping, because the technique operates at a self-referral level in which attention remains in a settled, inwardly directed state. In 23 subjects YF was compared with voluntary jumping in the same subjects which mimicked the movements of YF. The percentage of relative power of alpha was significantly higher for YF in virtually all EEG derivations, supporting the hypothesis. The effect appeared to be of similar magnitude in all cortical areas.

Mental Potential & Health | Psychological | Development of Personality | Decreased Insomnia, Reduced Use of Tranquilizers, Reduced Stress | 1977

Ljunggren G. The influence of Transcendental Meditation on neuroticism, use of drugs and insomnia.
Lakartidningen 1977 74(47):4212-4214
Improvements in neuroticism and insomnia, and reduced use of tranquilizers were found to result from three months’ practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. These findings indicate a relief from stress and increased psychological balance.

Mental Potential & Health | Psychological: Review CPVol5 Pg3399 | Development of Personality | TC | 1986

Alexander CN, Cranson RW, Boyer RW, Orme-Johnson DW. Transcendental Consciousness: a fourth state of consciousness beyond sleep, dreaming, and waking. In J Gackenbach (ed.), Sleep and Dreams: A Sourcebook (pp.282-312). New York: Garland Publishing, 1986 Physiological research is reviewed indicating that transcendental consciousness is a unique fourth major state of consciousness.

Mental Potential & Health | Physiological | EEG | TC Unique State of Restful Alertness | 1973

Banquet JP. Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1973 35(2):143-151 Subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique showed distinctive EEG changes, including slow, high amplitude alpha activity extending to anterior channels; theta activity different from sleep; rhythmic amplitude-moderated beta waves present over the whole scalp; and synchronization of anterior and posterior channels

Mental Potential & Health | Physiological | EEG | TC Unique state of Restful Alertness | 1974

Banquet JP, Sailhan M. Analyse E.E.G. d’états de conscience induits et spontanés. Revue d’Electroencéphalographie et de Neurophysiologie Clinique 1974 4(3):445-453 Significant differences found between the TM technique and relaxation and the TM technique and stages I and II of sleep.

Mental Potential & Health | Psychological | Affective | Decreased Anxiety | 1977

Dillbeck MC. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique on anxiety level. Journal of Clinical Psychology 1977 33(4):1076-1078 The Transcendental Meditation technique was found to be more effective in reducing anxiety than passive relaxation.

Mental Potential & Health | Physiological | Motor & Perceptual | Improved Visual Perception | RCT | 1982

Dillbeck MC. Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem solving. Memory and Cognition 1982 10(3):207-215 The Transcendental Meditation technique was found to improve visual perception both on tasks in which habitual patterns of perception aid performance and on those for which habitual patterns hinder performance. The study investigated the effects of regular practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique on habitual patterns of visual perception and problem solving. The study was on 69 college students who were randomly assigned to two groups, one that waited two weeks before learning TM, and one that practiced passive relaxation twice daily for two weeks before beginning the TM technique.  The third group, which was not randomly assigned, consisted of subjects from a psychology course who neither relaxed nor practice the TM technique.  This group served as a control for practice effects due to repeated measures of the task. It was specifically hypothesized that the TM technique involves a reduction of habitual patterns of perception and conceptual activation, resulting in (1) more effective application of schemata to new information and (2) less distracting mental activity during performance.  This was predicted to result in improved task performance on task conditions in which either (1) habitual patterns of performance hinder or do not aid performance, or (2) habitual patterns aid performance. Subjects began the TM technique, relaxed, or added nothing to their daily schedules for a two-week period.  The general hypothesis was supported for tasks of tachistoscopic identification of card and letter sequence stimuli, but not for the verbal problem-solving task of analog solutions. The results overall are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduction of conceptually driven mental activity during the TM technique results in improvement both on task conditions in which habitual perceptual schemata aid performance and on task conditions in which they either do not aid or actually hinder performance.  Evidence was found for this effect both immediately after meditation and over a two-week period for the perceptual tasks.

Mental Potential & Health | Physiological | EEG | Total Brain Functioning | 1999

Lyubimov NN. Changes in electroencephalogram and evoked potentials during application of a special form of psychological training (meditation). Human Physiology (Fiziologiya Cheloveka) 1999 25:171-180

Mental Potential & Health | Physiological | EEG | CC Pure Consciousness in Sleep | 1997

Mason LI, Alexander CN, Travis FT, Marsh G, Orme-Johnson DW, Gackenbach J, Mason DC, Rainforth M, Walton KG. Electrophysiological correlates of higher states of consciousness during sleep in long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program. Sleep 1997 20(2):102-110 Experiences of Pure Consciousness During Sleep: Increased EEG Theta/Alpha Power During Deep Sleep; Decreased EMG Activity During Deep Sleep; Increased REM Density During REM Sleep; More Frequent Reports of Higher States of Consciousness This study found that the experience of pure consciousness during sleep, among participants in the the TM and TM-Sidhi program, was associated with increased EEG theta/alpha power during deep sleep, decreased EMG activity during deep sleep, increased REM density during deep sleep, and more frequent reports of higher states of consciousness. Long term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program with self reports of higher states of consciousness during sleep displayed a unique EEG signature of simultaneous theta/alpha during delta of stage 3 and stage 4 deep sleep, along with decreased EMG and increased REM density during REM periods.

Mental Potential & Health | Physiological | EEG | TC+ | 2010

Mason LI, Orme-Johnson DW. Transcendental consciousness wakes up in dreaming and deep sleep.
International Journal of Dream Research 2010 3(1):28-32
Researchers present evidence in support of a model of consciousness that includes lucid dreaming, witnessing/transcendental consciousness during dreaming and witnessing/transcendental consciousness during deep sleep. Due to the potential for confusion between subjective reports of lucid dreaming and witnessing dreaming or witnessing sleep the authors suggest researchers screen for them all. The authors review electrophysiological findings in the night sleep of subjects reporting a peaceful inner awareness- witnessing/transcendental consciousness during dreaming and deep sleep and the implications for lucid dreaming research. Findings included EEG tracings of theta alpha (7-9 Hz) simultaneously with delta during deep sleep stages 3 and 4, decreased chin EMG, and highly significant increased theta2 and alpha1 relative power during stage 3 and 4 sleep as compared to controls. The authors discuss alpha synchrony during witnessing deep sleep and gamma during lucid dreaming. Maharishi’s (1969) model predicts that experiences of transcendental consciousness will occur in meditation (referring specifically to Transcendental Meditation), also during waking activity, later during dreaming and finally even during the inertia of deep sleep. In this model one method of increasing and stabilizing experiences of transcendental consciousness is through habituation processes, from alternating regular meditation with regular waking activity as well as having adequate rest at night. According to this model when transcendental consciousness is experienced continuously especially during deep sleep then a new so called higher state of consciousness has been achieved.

Mental Potential & Health | Psychological | Affective | Reduced Psychiatric Admissions | 1977

Ottoson J-O. Transcendental Meditation. Swedish National Health Board publication: Socialstyrelsen, 1977 D: nr SN 3-9-1194/73 An exhaustive survey conducted by the Swedish National Health Board found evidence that psychiatric admissions may be much less common among people practicing the TM program than in the general population.

Mental Potential & Health | Physiological | EEG | TC | 2001

Travis FT. Autonomic and EEG patterns distinguish transcending from other experiences during Transcendental Meditation practice. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2001 42(1):1-9 This study compared EEG and autonomic patterns during transcending to “other” experiences during Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice. To correlate specific meditation experiences with physiological measures, the experimenter rang a bell three times during the TM session. Subjects categorized their experiences around each bell ring. “Transcending” compared to other experiences during TM practice, was marked by (1) significantly lower breath rates (2) higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia amplitudes (3) higher EEG alpha amplitude and (4) higher alpha coherence. In addition skin conductance responses to the experimenter initiated bell rings were larger during transcending.

Mental Potential & Health | Physiological | EEG | Total Brain Functioning | 2006

Yamamoto S, Kitamura Y, Yamada N, Nakashima Y, Kuroda S. Medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in the generation of alpha activity induced by Transcendental Meditation: a magnetoencephalographic study. Acta Medica Okayama 2006 60(1):51-58 Previous EEG studies have shown that transcendental meditation (TM) increases frontal and central alpha activity. The present study was aimed at identifying the source of this alpha activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) simultaneously on eight TM practitioners before, during, and after TM. The magnetic field potentials corresponding to TM-induced alpha activities on EEG recordings were extracted, and we attempted to localize the dipole sources using the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, equivalent current dipole source analysis, and the multiple spatio-temporal dipole model. Since the dipoles were mapped to both the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), it is suggested that the mPFC and ACC play an important role in brain activity induced by TM.

Mental Potential & Health & Social Behavior | Psychological | Rehabilitation | Psychiatric | 1975

Candelent T, Candelent G. Teaching Transcendental Meditation in a psychiatric setting. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1975 26(3):156-159 Psychiatric patients from a broad range of diagnostic categories experienced reduced anxiety, improvements in sleep patterns, and lessened overactive or impulsive behavior as a result of the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. For two and a half years the authors taught the TM technique to psychiatric patients at the Institute of Living in Hartford, Connecticut.

Mental Potential & Health & Social Behavior | Physiological & Psychological & Sociological | Cognitive, Health, Development of Personality Productivity & Quality of Life | Life work of Chip Alexander on the application of TM & TM-Sidhi Program in all areas of life | 2005

Schmidt-Wilk J, Orme-Johnson DW, Alexander V, Schneider RH (eds). Maharishi’s Vedic psychology and its applications: honoring the life work of Charles N Alexander PhD. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 2005 17(1)1-620 2005 Applications of Maharishi Vedic Science to: Developmental Psychology; Health and Aging; Business Management; Collective Consciousness and Peace Studies; Public Policy, including Reducing Health Care Costs, Fulfilling Criminal Justice System Rehabilitative Ideal ; and new health-related applications including, Maharishi Sthapatya Veda, Maharishi Rejuvenation Program and Maharishi Gandharva Veda Music

Mental Potential & Social Behavior | Psychological and Sociological | Development of Personality | Moral Development | 2005

Nidich RJ, Nidich SI, Alexander CN. Moral development and natural law. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17:137-149 This paper describes Lawrence Kohlberg’s Stage 7, a cosmic perspective stage of moral development, and the natural law theories of Spinoza and others which influenced Kohlberg’s work. Solutions to what Kohlberg calls Stage 7 questions are only resolved when oneself and the universe are experienced as one fundamental wholeness. It clarifies and extends Kohlberg’s work through a consideration of Maharishi’s Vedic Science. This theory underscores the importance of the direct experience of the Self, the home of all the laws of nature, through the application of Maharishi’s Vedic Technologies of Consciousness. Research is presented that shows that the direct experience of the Self-Transcendental Consciousness-as indicated by high EEG coherence is associated with Stage 7 moral thinking. Maharishi’s Vedic Science delineates in specific detail the sequential, experiential development of higher states of consciousness, which culminates in a fully unified cosmic perspective at the level of Unity Consciousness. The research cited in this paper indicates that there are neurophysiological correlates to the experience of higher states of consciousness and to Kohlberg’s Stage 7 moral development stage. These studies along with the reported experiences of higher states of consciousness described in this paper, indicate that one can have direct experience of these levels of life, which are associated with higher EEG brainwave coherence.

Mental Potential & Social Behavior | Psychological | Development of Personality | TC+ Moral Development | 2000

Nidich SI, Nidich RJ, Alexander CN. Moral development and higher states of consciousness. Journal of Adult Development 2000 7(4):217-225 This paper discusses possible relationships between the cognitive–moral development theory of Lawrence Kohlberg and Charles Alexander’s life-span model. Central to Alexander’s model is the role which levels of mind and higher states of consciousness play throughout the general periods of development. Parallel to Kohlberg’s cosmic perspective Stage 7—which goes beyond the representational logic and reasoning identified by Piaget’s highest stage—are the post-representational stages of development, described by Vedic psychology and Alexander’s model as ‘higher states of consciousness’—transcendental consciousness, cosmic consciousness, God consciousness, and unity consciousness. At the highest level of consciousness, unity consciousness, cognitive development becomes complete with the ultimate identity of human intelligence with nature’s intelligence, allowing life to be lived in its greatest fulfillment. Research indicates that EEG brainwave coherence is associated with the development of higher states of consciousness and Kohlberg’s Stage 7. Studies on the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi programs as effective technologies for promoting moral development are further discussed.

Mental Potential & Social Behavior | Psychological | Cognitive Affective Dev of Personality Productivity & Quality of Life | Leadership | 2003

Schmidt-Wilk J. TQM and the Transcendental Meditation program in a Swedish top management team.The TQM Magazine 2003 15(4):219-229 The TQM Magazine 2003 15(4):219-229 Drawing on a case study of a Swedish top management team whose members were practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation1 (TM1) technique, this article argues for developmental maturity as an important causal factor for effective Top Quality Management behaviors and success. It suggests that, the practice of the TM technique promotes the psychological maturation that allows a greater range of appropriate behaviors. Increased maturity permits expression of more effective cognitive, affective, and team behaviors, as indicated by improved team functioning and successful planning.

Mental Potential Social Behavior | Psychological | Dev of Personality Productivity Quality of Life | Spirituality | 2009

Herriott EN, Schmidt-Wilk J, Heaton DP. Spiritual dimensions of entrepreneurship in Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program practitioners. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion 2009 6(3):195-208 A qualitative study explored features of personal development in a group of entrepreneurs who were long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Subjects reported that their meditation practice enabled them to cultivate inner experiences, which they described as being anchored to an unshakeable, transcendental inner spiritual core. These entrepreneurs reported that this inner experience led to enhanced intuition and to broad awareness that embraced the wider interests of the community and environment. Findings are discussed with reference to prior scholarship about spirituality in entrepreneurs. This exploratory study contributes to understanding the mechanics through which spiritual values and behaviors might become more fully realized in the workplace.

Mental Potential Social Behavior | Psychological: Review | Development of Personality Productivity & Quality of Life | Increased Job Satisfaction, Job Performance and Productivity | 1996

Schmidt-Wilk J, Alexander CN, Swanson GC. Developing consciousness in organizations: the Transcendental Meditation program in business. Journal of Business and Psychology 1996 10(4):429-444 A review of research and case studies on the application of Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation Program in the workplace indicates improved employee health, increased job satisfaction, improved job performance and productivity, and improved organizational performance and climate. These results are discussed in terms of the development of consciousness of the individual and the organization.

Social Behavior
Social Behavior | Sociological | Driver Development | 2016

Transcending as a driver of development

Frederick Travisv. Transcending as a driver of development. ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, Issue: Meditation, 2016, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. ISSN 0077-8923.This paper draws from three different bodies of research to discuss the hypothesis that age-appropriate experiences enhance brain and cognitive development throughout the life span. These age-appropriate experiences could be considered as the drivers of development at each age, including drivers to foster development beyond adult abstract thinking, as described in Piaget’s formal operational stage. We explore how a nurturing caregiver is the driver in the first 2 years of life, how language learning is the driver from 3 to 10 years, and how problem solving is the driver in the teenage years. To develop beyond adult rational thinking, we suggest that the driver is transcending thought, which can result when practicing meditations in the automatic self-transcending category, such as Transcendental Meditation.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1994

Bleick CR. Case histories: using the Transcendental Meditation program with alcoholics and addicts.
Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(3/4):243-269
Case Histories: Using the Transcendental Meditation Program with Alcoholics and Addicts. A Transcendental Meditation (TM) program for alcoholics and addicts has been operating since autumn of 1986 on the Los Angeles Westside, using the facilities of the CLARE (Community Living for Alcoholics by Rehabilitation and Education) Foundation, an alcohol recovery agency headquartered in Santa Monica. Our inaugural introductory lecture was organized by a CLARE volunteer for a CLARE staff meeting. Thereafter introductory lectures were publicized through posters at CLARE facilities and by word of mouth of meditators at their Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) (see Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc., 1976) or other Twelve Step program meetings, including Narcotics Anonymous (NA) and Cocaine Anonymous (CA).

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 3Pg 2093 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Insomnia TM in Corrections | 1978

Abrams AI, Siegel LM. The Transcendental Meditation program and rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison: a cross-validation study. Criminal Justice and Behavior 1978 5(1):3-20 The Transcendental Meditation program in a maximum security prison was studied via cross-validation design. Significant differences were found between the Transcendental Meditation and control groups across all the inventories, indicating reduction in anxiety, neuroticism, hostility, insomnia, fewer behavior infractions, decreased resentment; decreased negativism decreased irritability; improved sleep patterns (decreased time to fall asleep, decreased awakenings per night, improved quality of sleep).

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 3Pg 2104 | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 1979

Abrams AI. Transcendental Meditation and rehabilitation at Folsom Prison: response to a critique.
Criminal Justice and Behavior 1979 6(1):13-21
The benefits of Transcendental Meditation reported in the previous paper were found not to be the result of selection bias or a tendency of subjects to make socially desirable, untrue responses. The article responds to the challenge posed that findings by Abrams and Siegel on the TM program at Folsom State Prison resulted from Rosenthal experimental bias effects, and that the data was parsimoniously interpreted by the authors. The authors noted that Rosenthal effects are not so pervasive that in every possible instance promising treatments should be discounted. Moreover, EPI Lie Scale data indicate that, if anything, the treatment reduced the inmates’ modest tendency to make socially desirable, untrue responses. No consistent relations between levels of Lie Scale and criterion variables were found in a meta-analysis of the data. In conclusion, the potential cost-effectiveness of the program, which was questioned by the critic, was supported by an analysis of preliminary recidivism rates of discharged participants.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections Reduced Schizophrenic Symptoms, Reduced Aggression, Decreased Anxiety | 2003

Alexander CN, Orme-Johnson DW. Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners II: longitudinal study of development and psychopathology. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):127-160 271 maximum-security prisoners who were participating in either the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program, counseling, drug rehabilitation, or faith-based groups. Only regular participants in the TM program changed significantly. TM subjects showed significant reductions in aggression (p < .05), especially those who meditated at least twice a week (p < .005). In addition, they showed reduced schizophrenic symptoms (p < .05), decreased trait-anxiety (p < .10, trend), and increased frequency of postconceptual experience of higher states of consciousness (p < .01)

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections Reduced Recidivism | 2003

Alexander CN, Rainforth MV, Frank PR, Grant JD, Von Stade C. Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners III: reduced recidivism. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):161-180 Inmates who practiced the TM Technique experienced a reduction in recidivism of 33%, which was statistically significant (p = .042). Separate comparisons showed that the TM group also had lower re-incarceration rates than each of the four other programs, with proportionate reductions in recidivism ranging from 29% to 42% (p = .007 to .073). In addition, the TM group compared to all non-meditating subjects had a lower rate of re-incarceration due to new convictions (47% lower, proportionately; p = .045) and a 27% proportionately lower rate of re-incarceration/warrant for arrest (p = .069). The pattern of reduced recidivism for TM program members was maintained in multiple regression analyses, controlling for background and release variables (e.g., parole vs. full discharge, institution of release, drug history). These findings are consistent with the proposition that the reduced psychopathology and accelerated psychological development resulting from the TM program are responsible for reductions in criminal behavior.

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 6Pg 4013 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse (Alcohol, Drugs and Cigarettes) | Meta | 1994

Alexander CN, Robinson P, Rainforth MV. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: a review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(1/2):13-87 This paper presents a meta-analysis of the Transcendental Meditation program, indicating that individuals who learn this program show a significantly greater reduction in use of illegal drugs, alcohol and cigarettes than do individuals who participate in programs of relaxation, prevention or treatment. The results also showed that abstinence from illegal drugs, alcohol and cigarettes, was maintained or even increased over a long period of time among those who participated in the TM program, in contrast to high relapse rates for standard treatment programs. The meta-analysis also indicated that individuals with substance abuse problems who learned the TM program, showed significantly improved psychological health in comparison to controls. This meta-analysis of 155 studies found that the TM program was significantly more effective in reducing alcohol consumption (d=0.55) than relaxation techniques, counseling, peer pressure and DUI programs, (ds ranged from 0.07 to 0.33). In addition, a statistical meta-analysis summarizing 19 studies on the effects of the TM program found the technique produced substantial and highly significant reductions in alcohol, cigarettes and illegal drug use, with larger effects than other treatments, including standard therapies and other techniques of meditation and relaxation. Over an 18-24 month period, abstinence ranged from 51% to 89% for the TM program compared to 21% for good conventional substance abuse programs. Results of Integrative Meta-Analysis: Significantly Greater Reduction in Use of Illegal Drugs, Alcohol, and Cigarettes than Programs of Relaxation, Prevention, or Treatment; Abstinence from Illegal Drugs, Alcohol, and Cigarettes Maintained or Increased over Long Term (Relapse Prevention); Improved Psychological Health (Reduced Negative Qualities, Reduced Anxiety, Improved Positive Qualities) Among Those with Substance Abuse Problems in Comparison to Controls. Decades of efforts in the treatment of substance abuse have failed to yield a comprehensive treatment strategy that successfully addresses the multidimensional nature of chemical addiction. The current paper proposes that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program provides a holistic, natural, and effective approach that positively impacts a constellation of factors-social, environmental, physiological, psychological, and spiritual-that influence addictive behavior. TM’s effects on smoking, drinking and use of illicit drugs tend to increase over time, suggesting a cumulative effect of regular TM practice. In contrast, it is known that success rates for standard drug treatments fall off substantially over time. For alcohol abuse, TM produced a significantly greater effect than: (1) education programs designed to foster resistance to peer-pressure; (2) prevention education programs designed to enhance self-esteem and knowledge of drug consequences (3) the average of a wide range of DUI treatment programs such as AA and therapeutic probation programs and (4) the average of other relaxation treatment programs (including biofeedback, muscle relaxation, stress-management training, and other forms of meditation). For tobacco smoking, TM produced significantly greater effects than: (1) drug prevention education programs; (2) counseling programs for smoking cessation (3) bibliotherapy; (4) pharmacological treatments for nicotine addiction (including nicotine replacement programs and clonodine therapy); and (5) “unconventional” treatment (including acupuncture, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, etc.). For illicit drugs (cannabis, hallucinogens and narcotics), TM produced significantly greater effects than: (1) preventative education programs combining peer-pressure; and (2) preventative education programs fostering self-esteem and knowledge about drugs.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Alexander CN, Walton KG, Goodman R. Walpole study of the Transcendental Meditation program in maximum security prisoners I: cross-sectional differences in development and psychopathology.Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):97-126 Significant improvements in the TM group including improved ego development (p<.0005), improved interpersonal relationships (p<.05), reduced psychopathic deviation (p<.01), reduced anxiety (p<.05), reduced aggression (p<.05), reduced tension (p<.05), and reduced introversion (p<.05)These outcomes, identify the TM program as an effective tool for promoting the psychological health and personal maturation necessary for lasting rehabilitation of maximum-security inmates.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Alexander CN, Walton KG, Orme-Johnson DW, Goodman RS, Pallone NJ (eds). Transcendental Meditation in Criminal Rehabilitation and Crime Prevention. Binghamton, New York: Haworth Press, 2003 Benefits of The TM Technique experienced in 4 prison systems as well as, wide-ranging benefits of the TM program experienced by probationers that had committed offenses ranging from drunk driving to manslaughter. A comprehensive summary describing risk factors associated with the likelihood of criminal behavior and substance misuse and summarizing research indicating how the TM program successfully addresses many of these factors. A macroscopic view of the role of the TM program in criminal rehabilitation.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Anklesaria FK, King MS. The Enlightened Sentencing Project: a judicial innovation. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):35-46 Probationers “sentenced” to The TM Technique report less anger, decreased substance abuse,. Judges report the probationers practicing TM have greater self-esteem and self-control, positive social attitude, increased ability to secure employment. Starting in 1996, Judge David C. Mason, a Missouri circuit court judge began sentencing probationers (offenses from drunk driving to manslaughter) to learn The TM Technique and to attend classes on the technique. As of the publication of this study in 2003, 6 judges in Missouri have sentenced 100 probationers to The TM Program. Probation Officers in Missouri are also experiencing the wide range of benefits of the TM Program. Through the creative use of existing laws, the Enlightened Sentencing Project is an example of successful judicial innovation to meet a social need.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Anklesaria FK, King MS. The Transcendental Meditation program in the Senegalese penitentiary system. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):303-318 Between 1987 and 1989, more than 11,000 inmates and 900 correctional officers and prison administrators in 31 of the 34 prisons in the West African nation of Senegal were instructed in the Transcendental Meditation1 program. Rule infractions decreased, medical expenses went down 70%, and recidivism dropped from 90% in the pre-meditation period to less than 3% after the program was established.

Social Behavior | Review Paper CPVol4 Pg 2894 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1980

Aron A, Aron EN. The Transcendental Meditation program’s effect on addictive behavior. Addictive Behaviors 1980 5(1):3-12 This paper reviews research showing that the Transcendental Meditation program is effective in counteracting a wide variety of addictive behaviors. The authors locate the basis of this effect in the comprehensive physiological, psychological, and social benefits which have been found to result from Transcendental Meditation.—EDITORS The last section considers practical issues in implementing TM programs in addiction treatment and preventive settings.

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 3Pg 2158 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1983

Aron A, Aron EN. The pattern of reduction of drug and alcohol use among Transcendental Meditation participants. Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 1983 2(1):28-33 Reduced use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana was found to result from the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. The pattern seen was one of a progressive, internally-motivated decline of drug usage as a natural consequence of positive developments in the individual’s life.—EDITORS Recent studies suggest that substance abuse gradually declines and usage usually ceases after about 2 years of Transcendental Meditation (TM) practice, although the technique is seldom learned for this purpose. Many reported finding the substances less enjoyable or a growing sensitivity to their adverse physiological effects.

Social Behavior | Psychological CPVol4 Pg2474 | Affective | Marital Satisfaction & Adjustment | 1982

Aron EN, Aron A. Transcendental Meditation and marital adjustment. Psychological Reports 1982 51(7):887-890 This study found increase marital satisfaction and adjustment in couples who practice the TM technique. Married women who had learned the Transcendental Meditation technique showed greater marital satisfaction than matched non-meditating controls. This result was significantly greater in women who were regular in their practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Social Behavior | Psychological Stress Reduction | Development of Personality | Education Adolescent Behavior | RCT | 2003

Barnes VA, Bauza LB, Treiber FA. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2003 1(1):10  The TM group had lower rates of absenteeism, suspensions and school rule violations than the control group.

Social Behavior | Sociological CP Vol 5 Pg 3123 | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 1987

Bleick CR, Abrams AI. The Transcendental Meditation program and criminal recidivism in California.
Journal of Criminal Justice 1987 15(3):211-230
Practice of TM during incarceration reduces recidivism. TM parolees had lower re-conviction rates (46.7%) compared to statewide paroles at 6 months (p<.004), 1 year, (p<.004), 2 years (p<.002) and 30-40% reduced recidivism compared to controls at 1 year (p=.0007), 3 years(p=.007). and 5 years (p=.02). 59 percent of the mediators who were surveyed in prison and not yet released were still meditating.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Work-site Stress Reduction | RCT | 2005

Broome JR, Orme-Johnson D, Schmidt-Wilk J. Worksite stress reduction through the Transcendental Meditation program. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):235-276 An experiment on stress reduction using the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique and Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) was conducted at a South African firm with 80 employees. Psychological stress decreased significantly over 5.5 months for the TM group (p<.0002) with 67% of the decrease in the first two weeks; for the PMR group (p<.03); and near significantly for on-site controls (p<.09). Blood pressure reduced significantly only for the TM group.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: World | 2005

Brown CL. Overcoming barriers to use of promising research among elite Middle East policy groups.
Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):489-546
This qualitative research examines how barriers to the use of new theoretical constructs in social science research might be overcome. Five groups of elite members of the Middle East policy community – peer reviewers, newspaper reporters, Congress people, non-governmental influentials and US diplomats – assessed a research study that explored a strategy for reducing conflict in the Middle East. That study was published in the Journal of Conflict Resolution (International Peace Project in the Middle East: The Effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field or IPPME) and found that when a critical mass of people used the Transcendental Meditation technique (e.g., crime and war intensity) were reduced in the surrounding population. Over half of each group reviewing the research rejected IPPME immediately without examining scientific merit. Stereotyping and prejudice were evident. Others, who assessed scientific quality independently of their organizational philosophies and practices and exhibited greater curiosity, were likelier to consider IPPME further.

Social Behavior | Review Paper CP Vol 5 Pg 3427 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1988

Clements G, Krenner L, Mölk W. The use of the Transcendental Meditation program in the prevention of drug abuse and in the treatment of drug-addicted persons. Bulletin on Narcotics 1988 40(1):51-56This paper reviews the results of over 15 studies indicating that the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program reduces substance abuse.—EDITORS

Social Behavior | Review Paper CD Vol 5Pg 3415 | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 1987

Dillbeck MC, Abrams AI. The application of the Transcendental Meditation program to corrections.
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 1987 11(1):111-132
Research projects in eight correctional settings are narratively and quantitatively reviewed indicating The TM program leads to positive changes in health, personality development, behavior and reduced recidivism. This paper reviews the research results on the application of the Transcendental Meditation program in corrections, including improved mental health and reduced hostility among inmates, and reduced recidivism upon release. The authors propose the implementation of the Transcendental Meditation program in correctional settings on a large scale, in order to promote effective rehabilitation and thereby reduce the substantial financial and human costs of incarceration in society.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1994

Ellis GA, Corum P. Removing the motivator: a holistic solution to substance abuse. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(3/4):271-296 People want love, respect, health, happiness, inner peace, and freedom from stress. If any of these fundamentals is missing from a person’s life, that person becomes vulnerable to many types of disease-including substance abuse. This vulnerability is similar to weakness in the immune system, which leaves the body susceptible to outside influences that can cause myriad health problems. The Transcendental Meditation Program has been shown to ameliorate this vulnerability.

Social Behavior | Sociological CP Vol 1 Pg 625 | Productivity and Quality of Life | Improved Job Performance; Job Satisfaction & Relationships | 1974

Frew DR. Transcendental Meditation and productivity. Academy of Management Journal 1974 17:362-368 Job performance, job satisfaction, job stability, and interpersonal relationships with co-workers and supervisors were all seen to improve in people practicing the TM program.

Social Behavior | Sociological CP Vol 3Pg 2080 | Rehabilitation | Decreased Use of Drugs, Increased Self-Reliance, Creativity | 1978

Geisler M. Therapeutische Wirkungen der Transzendentalen Meditation auf Drogenkonsumenten.Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie 1978 7(4):235-255 In a two year longitudinal study regular practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique regular practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique showed a rapid and lasting decrease in the consumption of all kinds of drugs, improvements in personality and decreased neurotic tendencies. Continued practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique was found to result in progressive improvement of psycho-social health as shown by increased self-reliance and creativity.

Social Behavior | Sociological: Review CP Vol 6 Pg 4387 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1991

Gelderloos P, Walton KG, Orme-Johnson D W, Alexander CN. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in preventing and treating substance misuse: a review. International Journal of the Addictions 1991 26(3):293-325 The authors review research studies demonstrating decreased substance abuse among the general population, among participants in treatment programs and among prison inmates through the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. This article reviews 24 studies on the benefits of Transcendental Meditation (TM) in treating and preventing misuse of chemical substances. Studies cover non-institutionalized users, participants in treatment programs, and prisoners with histories of heavy use. All the studies showed positive effects of the TM program. Some of the survey-type studies were unable to exclude the possibility of self-selection or responder biases. However, longitudinal, random-assignment studies with objective measures also showed positive results. Taken together, these and other studies indicate the program simultaneously addresses several factors underlying substance abuse, providing not only immediate relief from distress, but also long-range improvements in well-being, self-esteem, personal empowerment, and other areas of psychophysiological health.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: Bi-Partisanship | 2006

Goodman RS, Goodman DH, Orme-Johnson DW. Congressional bipartisanship through a consciousness-based approach. Proceedings of the 64th Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 2006 MPSA06 proceeding:137454.doc In this paper we have investigated the theory and praxis of transcending human boundaries of thought by individuals, and by individuals coming together into conscious groups to improve society through their collective practice of TM and TM-Sidhi program. We have discussed the experience of transcendental or pure consciousness and its correlates with cutting-edge superstring unified field theories in physics, and the unusual qualities of coherent systems in nature. The National Demonstration Project (June 8, 1993 to July 31, 1993) had up to 4,000 participants throughout the Washington, D.C. area (show photo) who came from all over the United States and the world. Predictions were lodged in advance with an independent project review board. Of particular importance, crime and support for the President and increased cordiality in the city as evidenced by quality of life variables as distinct from each other as one could imagine, such as hospital trauma and complaints against the police all moved in concert in a positive direction. Taken separately, the results are impressive; taken as a whole these results are unassailable and point to the need for researchers, politicians and people of good will to seriously examine the contention that in the vicinity of transcending, in the vicinity of coherence creating groups, in the vicinity of people experiencing their inmost Self, harmony develops and negative tendencies drop off. Washington, D.C., which has a reputation as a murder capital, and Congress, which has been populated by members at loggerheads in many cases, ought to consider this Demonstration Project as pointing to a real and lasting solution to intransigent paralysis. Results comparing 3 periods of Congressional bipartisan vote patterns in 1993 using Rice’s Index of Likeness and ANOVA indicated that group practice of the Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi® programs in Washington, DC enhanced bipartisanship. Abstract: Congress is purported to reflect the will of the people. In recent years, it has reflected the very divided nature of the collective mood of the country. The research presented in this paper examines the Vedic perspective of collective consciousness. According to this perspective, actions and pronouncements of the individuals in the various branches of government are reflections of the total inputs of consciousness of the people of a nation, their levels of stress, and their positive or negative emotions and thought. For the last 25 years, a group of researchers has examined practical interventions proposed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi from this ancient Vedic tradition of India, to alleviate divisive and intransigent tendencies in the individual and society. Vedic theory proposes that the unifying value fundamentally inherent in human consciousness, will balance opposing tendencies. John Hagelin, a quantum physicist has noted that at 10-33 centimeters of the Planck scale, the fundamental force and matter fields are united into one underlying “Unified Field.” He also indicates that the mathematically defined properties of the quantum Unified Field have a one to one correspondence with the Unified Field of human consciousness described by Vedic texts. This Unified Field of human awareness can be systematically accessed through practice of the Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi® programs. Fifty carefully designed studies conducted on the societal level have indicated that when these technologies of consciousness are practiced in groups (the size of at least the square root of 1% of a society) the society responds with a more encompassing and balanced perspective. This paper describes research on bipartisan voting patterns in the Senate and House. The predictor variable is the number of individuals practicing the TM and TM-Sidhi programs in a group in Washington, D.C. in the summer of 1993. The data, all Congressional roll-call votes in 1993, were divided into three periods: before, during and after the group assembly, and scaled utilizing Rice’s (1925) Index of Likeness. Planned comparisons using ANOVA and Tukey HSD were calculated. Statistically significant results indicated that in contrast to the divisiveness that marked the spring voting patterns, the summer and fall voting patterns for both Senate and House reflected greater bipartisanship.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Goodman RS, Walton KG, Orme-Johnson DW, Boyer R. The Transcendental Meditation program: a consciousness-based developmental technology for rehabilitation and crime prevention. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):1-34 Documentation and explanation of the effects of the TM Technique spanning the fields of psychology, physiology, and sociology. Descriptions of practical applications of The TM Program to rehabilitation and prevention.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Organizational Learning | 1994

Gustavsson B, Harung HS. Organizational learning based on transforming collective consciousness.The Learning Organization: an International Journal 1994 1(1):33-40 In this article we have proposed a new concept of organizational learning based on transformation to higher stages of organizational development. We are arguing that this will have significant effects on the total quality of the organization and its actions. The end point of organizational learning would be autonomous and empowered individuals and empowered individuals with high levels of creativity and ethics, and the intrinsic capability and desire of orienting their individual contributions in the direction of the common whole – their organization and society at large. This, we claim, cannot be solved on a traditional level of training, but must be achieved by transcending the minds’ normal operations, infusing wholeness into the individuals’ consciousness, which in turn contributes to the collective consciousness of the organization. The authors are recommending two complementary strategies for this purpose: by training the organization’s members in Transcendental Meditation, the most efficient technique we know for personal and collective development. The second strategy consists of employing a “group for an organization, specialists in TM and TM-Sidhi program that generate a field effect of consciousness, thus creating a transformation, in the organization.The most underdeveloped human resource is consciousness – in organizational terms, the collective consciousness. Develop that, and the rest will follow.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Addiction | Reduced Substance Abuse in College Students | 2011

Haaga DAF, Grosswald S, Gaylord-King C, Rainforth M, Tanner M, Travis F, Nidich S, Schneider RH. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on substance use among university students. Cardiology Research and Practice 2011, – published online at Cardiol Res Pract. 2011:537101 A randomized wait-list controlled trial (N = 295 university students) of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation program was conducted in an urban setting. Substance use was assessed by self-report at baseline and 3 months later. For smoking and illicit drug use, there were no significant differences between conditions. For alcohol use, sex X intervention condition interactions were significant; TM instruction lowered drinking rates among male but not female students. TM instruction could play a valuable role in reducing alcohol use among male university students. Limitations are noted, along with suggestions for further research. In conclusion, we found no evidence of an effect of Transcendental Meditation (TM) instruction on cigarette smoking or illicit drug use among university students, but TM instruction did lower alcohol use among male participants. Given that male students are more likely than female students to have alcohol use disorders, the impact of TM practice on alcohol intake among men is a very encouraging result. Additional studies with larger samples of baseline substance users (particularly for cigarettes and illicit drugs), multi-method assessments of substance use, higher adherence to the recommended twice daily practice, and a longer period of TM practice would be needed before concluding definitively that the TM program does not also reduce drinking among female students or illicit drug use or cigarette smoking in college student samples of either sex.

Social Behavior | Psychological CP Vol 3 Pg 2011 | Development of Personality | Increased Positivity toward Self and Others in Students | 1978

Hanley CP, Spates JL. Transcendental Meditation and social psychological attitudes. Journal of Psychology 1978 99:121-127 Students practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique were found to have a more positive conception of human nature, a more positive self-image, higher levels of tolerance, greater sociability, and fewer feelings of social inadequacy than general student counterparts. The benefits were seen to be more marked in long-term meditators than in short-term meditators.

Social Behavior | Psychological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Time Management | 1998

Harung HS. Improved time management through human development: achieving most with least expenditure of time. Journal of Managerial Psychology 1998 13(5/6):406-428 Time is a primary resource. The common experience is that we are limited by lack of time, and that time is not used in an effective way. The key to improved time management – to have more time available through a longer life and to accomplishing more with less effort – lies in the development of human consciousness to higher stages of happiness, effectiveness, freedom, and comprehension. In the most advanced domain of human unfoldment, higher states of consciousness, we may gain freedom from the binding influence of time so that time ceases to be a factor limiting our achievements in life.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Hawkins MA. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in criminal rehabilitation and substance abuse recovery: a review of the research. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):47-66 Incarcerated Offenders show decreased aggression, decreased hostility, decreased in-prison rule infractions and decreased substance abuse as well as increased moral judgment. Significant reduction in the risk factors that underlie substance dependence, particularly reduction in anxiety, depression, neuroticism, and other forms of psychological distress. The TM Program produces a wide range of improvements in psychophysiological well-being as indicated by better psychological health, enhanced autonomic functioning, and improved neuroendocrine balance resulting in significantly lower recidivism rates for parolee practitioners and lower relapse rates for addicts.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Hawkins M, Alexander CN, Travis FT, Camelia CR, Walton KG, Durchholz CF, Rainforth MW. Consciousness-based approach to rehabilitation of inmates in the Netherlands Antilles: psychosocial and cognitive changes. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):205-228 In TM Group, significant decrease in Cognitive Distortion (thinking errors) (p<.05) and significant increase in Intelligence-related Measures (p<.05), with a increase in psychological well-being (p=.082) Practice of TM positively affects recognized correlates of criminal behavior. TM can reduce a risk factor while simultaneously increasing protective factors.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2005

Hawkins MA, Orme-Johnson DW, Durchholz CF. Fulfilling the rehabilitative ideal through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programs: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):443-488 Unprecedented wide-ranging benefits of The TM Technique have been demonstrated, including improvements in biochemistry, physiology, as well as improvement in psychosocial, cognitive and behavioral measurements. Reduced risk factors for criminal conduct have been demonstrated along with increased “protective factors” and societal prevention. The TM Program has been applied successfully to offender populations, at-risk populations and in the general population for crime prevention.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Management | 1999

Heaton D, Harung HS. Vedic Management: enlightening human resources for holistic success. Chinmaya Management Review 1999 3:75-84

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Spirituality in Organizations | 2004

Heaton D, Schmidt-Wilk J, Travis FT. Constructs, methods, and measures for researching spirituality in organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management 2004 17(1):62-82 Cross-sectional studies can examine correlations between measures of spiritual practice, measures of pure spirituality experiences, and indicators of multiple facets of applied spirituality. The hypothesis of such studies would be that greater frequency of pure spirituality, resulting from spiritual practices, would be correlated with higher levels of applied spirituality. For example, applied spirituality could be measured in terms of adaptability to change, satisfaction in work relationship, nurturance in leadership, and social and environmental responsibility in business practices. Quasi-experimental longitudinal studies can test hypotheses regarding pre-post changes from implementing programs for enhancing spirituality in organizations. Outcome variables can include physical and mental health, absenteeism, productivity, and financial performance. Finally, the model suggests that a holistic framework of health, happiness, wisdom, success, and fulfillment can be used by managers, job seekers, and investors to evaluate the scope of the goals of an organization and to assess its holistic performance.

Social Behavior | Psychological CP Vol 3 Pg 2038 | Development of Personality | Improved Perception of Others | 1979

Holeman R, Seiler G. Effects of sensitivity training and Transcendental Meditation on perception of others. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1979 49(5):270 The Transcendental Meditation technique was found to improve perception of others.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Jones C, Clayborne M, Grant JD, Rutherford G. Attacking crime at its source: consciousness-based education in the prevention of violence and anti-social behavior. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation2003 36(1-4):229-256 Unique effectiveness of the TM Program due to its ability to simultaneously deal with multiple causes of crime and violence. The practice of the TM Technique reduces 23 identified risk factors for crime in four broad categories-physiological, psychological, sociological circumstances and substance abuse.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2000

King MS. Deterrence, rehabilitation and human nature: the need for a holistic approach to offenders.
Criminal Law Journal 2000 24:335-345
Research indicating stress affects the individual as whole, causing and contributing to criminal activity, underscores the criminal justice systems need for holistic approaches. An alternative approach used by some judges and prisons is offender practice of Transcendental Meditation. It dissolves stress that adversely impacts mind, body and behavior and promotes development of inner resources to enable offenders to handle life challenges constructively. Research has found decreased substance abuse, aggression and recidivism in meditating offenders.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2002

King MS. Geraldton Alternative Sentencing Regime: applying therapeutic and holistic jurisprudence in the bush. Criminal Law Journal 2002 26:260-271 The Geraldton Alternative Sentencing Regime endeavors to promote offender rehabilitation by taking a holistic, therapeutic, innovative and developmental approach that uses court processes to promote healing, encourages individual responsibility and utilizes a wide range of programs. Results from its first year of operation suggest that court processes used positively impacted on self-esteem and participants’ commitment to rehabilitation, supporting a key claim of therapeutic jurisprudence. Graduates report improved health, stopping or decreasing use of alcohol and illicit drugs, increased motivation to work or study and to stop offending and improved relationships. Participants practicing the self-development technique Transcendental Meditation report reduced substance abuse and improved well-being from the practice.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Natural Law | 2003

King MS. Natural law and the Bhagavad-Gita: the Vedic concept of natural law. Ratio Juris 2003 16:399-415  Abstract. Western natural law theory emphasizes the derivation of principles of right action said to be universal and objective from the application of practical reasonableness to the pursuit of basic human goods that are self-evident or based on human nature. Critics say its methodology is inherently subjective. In contrast, the Vedic approach to natural law of the Bhagavad-Gita emphasizes the full development of a universal aspect of human nature—consciousness—to promote right action. A healthy person with a developed intellect, clear mind, balanced emotions and full perception is best placed to fulfill his or her society’s highest ideals of ethical and lawful conduct. The Vedic approach advocates a supportive social environment and the use of meditation techniques to promote such development. Research has found that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program promotes improvement in mind, body and behavior. For example, offenders in Australia, the United States and Senegal practicing the technique experienced decreased substance abuse and recidivism and improved wellbeing. From a scientific perspective, TM promotes these improvements by producing a unique psychophysiological state of restful alertness that dissolves stress that blocks the unfoldment of full potential in life.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Magill DL. Cost savings from teaching the Transcendental Meditation program. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):319-332 Total savings over 5 years for every 1,000 inmates and 100 correctional officers instructed in the TM Program is estimated at $31.6 million

Social Behavior | Review CP Vol 2 Pg 1335 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1974

Marcus JB. Transcendental Meditation: a new method of reducing drug abuse. Drug Forum 1974 3(2):113-136 Research demonstrates that Transcendental Meditation is effective in the treatment and prevention of drug abuse.—EDITORS

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Leadership | 1999

McCollum B. Leadership development and self-development: an empirical study. Career Development International 1999 4(3):149-154 Considering vision, creativity, empowerment, and role modeling, the people practicing the TM technique grew significantly more in leadership behaviors for all variables. The need for effective leadership development programs was never greater than it is today. As companies continue to increase their demands for self-reliance, creativity and cooperation, individuals at all levels of the corporation need to grow in leadership. Maharishi’s Vedic Science and the worldview implied by modern physics both suggest that we may be able to do a more effective job at developing leadership, if we put more attention on developing the leader at the deepest level of the individual. The evidence that such growth of leadership occurs with personal growth at all levels of the organization suggests that we may be able to make everyone a leader.

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 2 Pg1161 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1977

Monahan R. Secondary prevention of drug dependency through the Transcendental Meditation program in metropolitan Philadelphia. International Journal of the Addictions 1977 12(6):729-754Marked reductions in the use of prescribed tranquilizers, tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and in total number of prescriptions received, were found to result from participation in the Transcendental Meditation program. Using mailed questionnaires, the Transcendental Meditation program was investigated as an approach to the secondary prevention of substance dependence. Significant differences were found between a random sample of meditators and matched control subjects in usage levels and percentage of users for almost all legal and illegal drugs. Meditators had used more prescribed psychoactive medications before learning meditation, but usage levels returned to normal soon after starting. Former users of alcohol, cigarettes, or illegal drugs achieved remarkable abstinence records. For most substances the amount of decrease was positively correlated with degree of participation in the program and the length of time meditating.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse: Relapse Prevention | 1991

O’Connell DF. The use of Transcendental Meditation in relapse prevention counseling. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1991 8(1):53-68

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse: Recovery | 1994

O’Connell DF. Possessing the Self: Maharishi Ayur-Veda and the process of recovery from addictive diseases. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(3/4):459-495

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1994

O’Connell DF, Alexander CN (eds). Self recovery: Treating Addictions Using Transcendental Meditation and Maharishi Ayur-Veda. New York: Haworth Press, 1994 “A scholarly trailblazer, a scientific first…Sweeping in its theoretical and applied scope, addressing the abuse of the substances from medical , psychological, sociological, and spiritual perspectives. Those who work daily in the fight against substance abuse, violence, and illness will surely profit from reading this important volume. In my opinion, it represents a valuable new tool in what may be America’s most difficult battle.” Joseph Drew PhD, Chair for Evaluation, Mayor’s Advisory Committee in Drug Abuse, Washington, DC, Professor of Political Science, University of the District of Columbia. “Finally a book that addresses the vital missing dimensions of addictions treatment – discovery of one’s innermost self or being. The holistic and natural approach presented in this volume will revolutionize the way we think about and treat addiction. The dramatic case studies and breakthrough research that it reports offers new hope to patients and professionals alike.” Janet Woodburn 46th President Alcohol and Drug Problems Association of North America “A highly creative and compassionate response to the tragic problem of addictions. In this engaging volume, the author’s offer a sound theoretical framework, rigorous empirical data, and readily applicable methods for resolving this crisis. What is most helpful about this approach is that it does not just focus on getting people to stop harming themselves and others. Rather it has the potential for nurturing all people all people to reach their greatest potential.” Ronald David MD lecturer in Public Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University “An unusual and stimulating book…addresses ways in which TM and Maharishi Ayur-veda can help people afflicted with addictions develop their inner resources to grow as individuals. With the devastating effects on individuals. With the devastating effects of addictions on individuals, families, and society, there is a need for new and different perspectives to address this serious problem. This book is sure to open our minds and show us that there is much hope in using holistic approaches to treat addiction.” Dennis C. Daley, Program Director, Center for Psychiatric and Chemical Dependency Services, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic

Social Behavior | Review Paper CPVol4 Pg 2904 | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 1981

Orme-Johnson, DW. Prison rehabilitation and crime prevention through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. In LH Hippchen (ed.), Holistic Approaches to Offender Rehabilitation (Chapter 19). Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas Press, 1981 A summary of research on the Transcendental Meditation program conducted in prisons and presents an overview of the physiological, psychological, and sociological findings in terms of the growth of stability and adaptability. In addition the practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program is shown to produce a coherent influence throughout collective consciousness, thereby preventing crime and promoting positive trends in society.

Social Behavior | Sociological: Review CPVol6 Pg 4413 | Rehabilitation | Reduction in Substance Abuse | 1994

Orme-Johnson DW. Transcendental Meditation as an epidemiological approach to drug and alcohol abuse: theory, research, and financial impact evaluation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(1/2):119-168 This paper focuses on the contributions of the TM Program to resolving the broad social problems associated with addictions. The author proposes that drug and alcohol abuse are symptoms of a general stress-addiction-crime epidemic in society. The paper then reviews sociological research findings showing how societal disorder experienced as crime, drug abuse, political conflict, and economic instability can be substantially and cost effectively reduced through the group practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi Program. Over 40 studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of The Transcendental Meditation Technique and the TM-Sidhi Program to reduce the societal correlates of drug & alcohol abuse. Such as crime, traffic accidents and unemployment and in some studies to directly reduce alcohol abuse such as crime, traffic accidents and unemployment and in some studies to directly reduce alcohol and tobacco use as part of quality of life indices. Estimates show financial savings for society from the implementation of this technology as $322.7 billion savings for the private sector, $119 billion for the federal government and $45.4 billion for the state government for a total of $487.5 billion

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Preventing Crime thru the Maharishi Effect | 2003

Orme-Johnson DW. Preventing crime though the Maharishi Effect. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation2003 36(1-4):257-281 Criminologists view crime as a multidimensional problem that is best prevented by programs that strengthen informal social control, which is the internalized propensity of the individual to find rewarding behavior patterns within the law. This paper introduces the theory and research on crime prevention through the Maharishi Effect, a powerful mechanism of increasing informal social control by increasing coherence and decreasing stress in the most holistic level of society, its collective consciousness. A review of 15 published studies conducted on city, state, national, and international levels finds strong evidence that crime is reduced and quality of life is improved when 1% of a population practices the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program. This is termed the Maharishi Effect. This review also finds that crime is reduced and quality of life improved when groups the size of the square root of 1% of a population practice the more powerful TM-Sidhi program together in one place. This is called the Extended Maharishi Effect. Theoretically, such a transformation is made possible by the ability of the TM and TM-Sidhi programs to provide direct experience of the unified field of natural law in the simplest form of human awareness, transcendental consciousness, which brings life in accord with natural law. This program is easily implemented and highly cost effective as a primary protective factor against crime.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections Commentary | 2011

Orme-Johnson DW. Commentary: the use of meditation in corrections. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 2011 55(4):662-664 I was pleased to see that the International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology published a review of the effects of different meditation practices in corrections settings (Himelstein, 2010). Several key findings on meditation in corrections were not included in the review, which I would like to summarize here.

Studies not reviewed. The review covered only 6 of the 17 studies on the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique in corrections (35% of the evidence; Hawkins, Orme-Johnson, & Durchholz, 2005). Among the omissions were four randomized longitudinal studies with a total of 226 subjects and 25 studies on substance use. The four randomized trials ranged in length from 2 weeks to 10 months and found significant decreases in TM subjects compared to controls on self-report psychological measures of depression, neuroticism, sleep disturbance, suspicion, hostility, aggression, and assault (Hawkins et al., 2005). Noteworthy is that the randomized studies also found significant improvements on “hard” archival behavioral measures, such as reduced prison rule infractions and increased participation in educational and recreational programs during 10 months of practicing the TM technique, as well as reduced neurochemical stress markers after 41⁄2 months. Himelstein did review the three studies showing that TM practice reduces recidivism by up to 43.5% fewer new convictions 15 years after release from prison compared to matched controls.

Neuroendocrine mechanism. Also missing from the review was mention of a seminal paper by Walton and Levitsky (2003) on neuroendocrine mechanisms. Briefly, whereas reduced serotonin levels have been associated with impulsive (unpremeditated) aggression and attempted suicide, TM practice has been shown to increase serotonin metabolites. A wide range of evidence indicates that regular practice of the TM technique balances the autonomic nervous system, reducing chronic baseline activation levels of the sympathetic nervous system and improving reactivity to stress. States or behaviors associated with aggression, such as hostility and alcohol consumption, have also been correlated with elevated cortisol secretion, and TM practice has acute and long-term effects of reducing cortisol and increasing the ratio of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) to cortisol, a sensitive measure of balance in the system.

Psychological mechanism. Another important area of meditation research missed by the review includes studies testing the hypothesis that offenders are as if “frozen” in an immature state of ego development and that practice of the TM technique unfreezes development (Alexander & Orme-Johnson, 2003). To test this hypothesis, 271 maximum- security prisoners were studied over a 15.7-month period for longitudinal changes in International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology XX(X) self-development and psychopathology due to the TM technique and other prison programs (counseling, drug rehabilitation, or participation in Muslim or Christian groups). Controlling for pretest scores, overlap of membership, and 19 demographic and criminal history factors, TM members compared to controls increased significantly in Loevinger’s ego development scale, an objective test of global personality development. The results indicate the development of a more mature, responsible, self- monitoring, self-respecting, and communicative personality. TM subjects also showed reductions in aggression, schizophrenic symptoms, and trait-anxiety (Alexander & Orme-Johnson, 2003).

Different types of meditation. There are basic differences among meditation techniques with regard to the sensory, cognitive, and physical processes they require, their neurophysiological effects, and their behavioral outcomes. Travis and Shear (in press) have classified meditation techniques into three distinct types of practices according to their electroencephalographic (EEG) signatures. These three types of meditation are focused attention, open monitoring, and automatic self-transcending. Focused attention or concentration techniques are characterized by EEG in the beta2 (20-30 Hz) and gamma (30-50 Hz) frequency bands, which are associated with the voluntary sustained control of attention to keep it focused on the object of meditation, such as a specific thought or sensory focus. Open monitoring or mindfulness-based meditation techniques (the other type besides the TM technique reviewed by Himelstein) are characterized by frontal theta (5-8 Hz) EEG and perhaps occipital gamma, in association with dispassionate nonevaluative monitoring of ongoing experience (Travis & Shear, in press). Frontal theta occurs when the brain is inhibiting sensory input in order to carry out internal mental processes, as it does when there is a need to block out distractions while focusing inward, as during mental arithmetic (Sauseng & Klimesch, 2008). The heart of mindfulness techniques is to learn to monitor ongoing experience in and outside of meditation to develop a nonjudgmental attitude and healthier, more adaptive attitudes and behavioral reactions.

In contrast, the purpose of the TM technique is to transcend any mental activity during meditation, and there are no specific practices to be done outside of meditation, only to act naturally. Controlled and randomized studies have shown that the TM practice increases alpha coherence and synchrony both within and outside of meditation (Travis et al., 2009), and this, along with the concomitant reduction in stress physiology mentioned above, appears to account for its effects, not any change in attitude or cognitive style.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Affective | TM in Corrections | 2003

Orme-Johnson DW, Moore RM. First prison study using the Transcendental Meditation program: La Tuna Federal Penitentiary. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):89-96 After practicing the TM Technique for 2 months, inmates showed increased stability of the autonomic nervous system, decreased rigidity, decreased obsessive thoughts, decreased compulsive behavior, decreased psychasthenia (including phobias and excessive anxiety), decreased social introversion, decreased SSRR, improved integrated function of the frontal lobes beneficial for rehabilitation.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehab | TM in Corrections | 2003

Rainforth M, Alexander CN, Cavanaugh KL. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on recidivism of former inmates of Folsom Prison: survival analysis of 15-year follow-up data. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 35:181-204 TM parolees had lower re-conviction rates (46.7%) compared to controls (66.7%), a highly significant (p=0.0008) 43.5% reduction

Social Behavior | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Leadership | 2003

Schmidt-Wilk J, Alexander CN, Swanson GC. Introduction of the Transcendental Meditation program in a Norwegian top management team. In B Glaser (ed.), Grounded Theory: 1984-1994. Mill Valley, California: Sociology Press, 2003

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 1 Pg 515 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1974

Shafii M, Lavely RA, Jaffe RD. Meditation and marijuana. American Journal of Psychiatry 1974 131(1):60-63 Marijuana use declined in people practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique; the amount of decline was correlated with the number of months they had been practicing the technique. Using a questionnaire survey, the authors sought to discover the effect of meditation on their subjects’ use of marijuana. While only 15 percent of a non-meditating control group had decreased or stopped their use of marijuana during the preceding three months, among the meditators proportions ranging from half to three-quarters (depending on the length of time since their initiation) had decreased or stopped their use during the first three months after initiation into meditation. The authors found that the longer a person had practiced meditation, the more likely it was that he had decreased or stopped his use of marijuana.

Social Behavior | Sociological CPVol 1 Pg 520 | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1975

Shafii M, Lavely RA, Jaffe RD. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry 1975 132(9):942-945 People practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique showed significant decreases in alcohol consumption as compared with matched controls. The authors surveyed the frequency of alcohol use in individuals identified as practitioners of Transcendental Meditation (N —126) and a matched control group (N — 90). No control subjects reported discontinuation of beer and wine use; 40 percent of subjects who had meditated for more than two years reported discontinuation within the first six months. After 25-39 months of meditation, this figure increased to 60 percent. In addition, 54 percent of this group, versus one percent of the control group, had stopped drinking hard liquor. The authors suggest that meditation could be an effective preventive tool in the area of alcohol abuse.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Prevent Substance Abuse: Juveniles at Risk | 1994

Sharma HM, Dillbeck MC, Dillbeck SL. Implementation of the Transcendental Meditation program and Maharishi Ayur-Veda to prevent alcohol and drug abuse among juveniles at risk. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(3/4):429-457 The purpose of the proposed treatment program is to provide a holistic, natural approach to prevent alcohol and drug abuse among high-risk preadolescent and adolescent children by reducing psychological distress and physiological imbalance, and by enhancing protective resources through an individual and family program. To achieve this goal, juveniles referred for alcohol and drug abuse treatment and also their families participate in a special treatment implementing the Transcendental Meditation program and aspects of a natural system of health care known as Maharishi Ayur -Veda. A large body of scientific research has demonstrated that this program reduces anxiety, depression, and hostility; increases psycho-physiological balance and resistance to stress; promotes more harmonious relations; and most importantly, naturally reduces dependence on alcohol, drugs, and other substances. The key components of the treatment program are the following; twice-daily practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique; twice-daily use of the herbal food supplement Maharishi Amrit Kalash; daily after-school sessions to ensure regularity and maximum benefit; a weekly treatment/class meeting for participants to understand their own experience of developing consciousness in the context of unifying principles that apply equally to their academic studies, to society, and to nature as a whole; and parental and peer participation. Structure and details of the proposed treatment program are outlined in the paper, as well as details of treatment outcome evaluation and procedures to evaluate the successful implementation of the program.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | 1994

Staggers Jr F, Alexander CN, Walton KG. Importance of reducing stress and strengthening the host in drug detoxification: the potential offered by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(3/4):297-331 Given the critical importance of reducing stress and strengthening the host during drug detoxification, The Transcendental Meditation Technique appears highly promising as a primary detoxification treatment or as a component of multifaceted treatment programs. No changes in beliefs, diet or other aspects of a lifestyle are required. Spontaneous improvements in attitude toward health and in assuming responsibility even after short time of practice.

Social Behavior | Review CPVol 2 Pg1381 | Rehabilitation | Chronic Disorders: Reduced Substance Abuse | 1977

Stutz E. Transzendentale Meditation in der Behandlung Drogenabhängiger. Das öffentliche Gesundheilswesen 1977 39:759-766 The Transcendental Meditation program is found to be effective in drug rehabilitation. This study has identified benefits of the Transcendental Meditation technique in improving quality of life and mental health in patients with chronic disorders.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | Reduced Substance Abuse | RCT | 1994

Taub E, Steiner SS, Weingarten E, Walton KG. Effectiveness of broad spectrum approaches to relapse prevention in severe alcoholism: a long-term, randomised, controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation, EMG biofeedback and electronic neurotherapy. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 1994 11(1/2):187-220 Over an 18-month period, addition of the TM technique produced over 2 1/2 times the abstinence rate of a standard AA plus counseling program in severe, skid-row type alcoholics. In this controlled trial of relapse prevention effectiveness, severe, chronic, highly transient alcoholics at a residential facility were randomly assigned, following detoxification, to groups who were to receive either TM, EMG biofeedback or electronic neurotherapy along with the routine AA and counseling services of the rehabilitation center. The results from these groups were compared with those who had volunteered for one of the therapies but were subsequently randomly assigned to a group receiving AA and counseling alone. 65% of the Transcendental Meditation Group and 55% of the EMG biofeedback group reported complete abstinence 18 months after leaving the treatment center, compared to 25% for the routine therapy and 28% for the neurotherapy comparison groups. According to the Surgeon General about 33% or one third of all adults completing treatment for alcohol and drug dependence remain abstinent after the first 90 days of follow-up. Three types of “checks” were employed, in field breath tests, dates of incarcerations, and hospitalizations, and the reports of significant others, finding a less than 5% discrepancy between self-report and methods of verification. Subscales of the Profile of Mood States used to assess transient distinct mood states during the institutional phase showed the TM group had significant improvement in five of the six subscales, while the biofeedback group improved significantly on two. The six subscales are tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, vigor-activity and confusion-bewilderment.

Social Behavior | Psychological | Development of Personality | Stronger Self-Identity | 1982

Turnbull M, Norris H. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on self-identity indices and personality.
British Journal of Psychology 1982 73:57-69
The practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique was found to result in a stronger self-identity.

Social Behavior | Sociological | Rehabilitation | TM in Corrections | 2003

Walton KG, Levitsky DK. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on neuroendocrine abnormalities associated with aggression and crime. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):67-88 The TM Program reduces stress induced abnormalities in the neuroendocrine systems. Abnormalities in the neuroendocrine systems have been related to impulsivity, aggression and crime.

World Peace
World Peace | Sociological | Reduction in U.S Homicide + Urban Crime Rates | 2016

Societal Violence and Collective Consciousness: Reduction of U.S. Homicide and Urban Violent Crime Rates

Michael C. Dillbeck and Kenneth L. Cavanaugh. Societal Violence and Collective Consciousness: Reduction of U.S. Homicide and Urban Violent Crime Rates. SAGE Open April-June 2016: 1 –16. This research tests the hypothesis that group practice of the Transcendental Meditation® (TM) and TM-Sidhi® program by a group of sufficient size is associated with reduced rates of homicide and violent crime. Data from a prospective quasi-experiment were analyzed using intervention analysis or interrupted time series analysis. Dependent variables are time series of the U.S. monthly homicide rate as well as violent crime rate from a sample of 206 cities. The binary intervention variable is based on the size of the largest U.S. TM-Sidhi group. Intervention effects were analyzed by time series regression using a broken-trend intervention model. As hypothesized, there was a statistically and practically significant shift in trend in the direction of reduced rates for each of the variables beginning with the onset of the intervention period. Diagnostic tests indicate that key statistical assumptions of the analysis are satisfied. Alternative hypotheses are considered for the apparent effect of macro-level social behavioral change without micro-level behavioral interaction.

World Peace | Sociological | Reduction in U.S Urban Murder Rates | 2017

Field Effects of Consciousness and Reduction in U.S. Urban Murder Rates: Evaluation of a Prospective Quasi-Experiment

Kenneth L. Cavanaugh, Michael C. Dillbeck. Field Effects of Consciousness and Reduction in U.S. Urban Murder Rates: Evaluation of a Prospective Quasi-Experiment. Journal of Health and Environmental Research. Vol. 3, No. 3-1, 2017, pp. 32-43. Creation of a sustainable society ideally should include promotion of an enhanced overall quality of life, including freedom from crime, violence, and other key indicators of social stress. This study is part of a comprehensive empirical evaluation of the results of a prospective four-year quasi-experiment that sought to reduce rates of homicide and violent crime as well as to improve other measures of the quality of life and public health in the United States. The current research tests the hypothesis that group practice of the Transcendental Meditation® (TM) and TM-Sidhi® program by a group of theoretically predicted size would be sufficient to reduce collective stress in the larger population, as reflected in decreased rates of homicide in a sample of 206 large U.S. urban areas. Time series regression analysis of monthly data for 2002–2010 using a broken-trend intervention model found significant reductions in trend for the urban homicide rate during the 2007–2010 intervention period (p = 1 x 10–13). Controlling for pre-intervention trends, seasonality, and autocorrelation, the estimated total reduction in homicide rate was 28.4% (7.1% annually). The practical significance of these findings is also indicated by an estimated 4,136 murders averted by the reduced trend in murder rate during the intervention. Diagnostic tests are satisfactory and indicate that the results are unlikely due to “spurious regression.” The mechanism for these macro-social effects is discussed in the light of possible alternative hypotheses.

World Peace | Sociological CP Vol 6Pg 4101 | Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: Nation | 1995

Assimakis PD, Dillbeck MC. Time series analysis of improved quality of life in Canada: social change, collective consciousness, and the TM-Sidhi program. Psychological Reports 1995 76(3):1171-1193Improved Quality of National Life: Improvements on a Weekly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, and Suicide (Canada, 1983-1985); Improvements on a Monthly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, Suicide, Cigarette Consumption, and Worker-Days Lost in Strikes (Canada, 1972-1986). Reduced violent deaths were found in Canada when the size of the Maharishi University of Management group exceeded the square root of one percent of the combined populations of the U.S. and Canada. The two studies reported in this paper found improved quality of national life in Canada during periods when the size of the group of participants in the Transcendental Meditation Sidhi program in the USA exceeded the square root of one percent of the combined national populations of the USA and Canada. The first study found significant improvement in a weekly index measured by the sum of motor vehicle fatalities, homicides, and suicides, the second study documented significant improvement in a monthly index that combined the variables of motor vehicle fatalities, homicide, suicide, cigarette consumption and work days lost in strikes.

World Peace | Sociological CPVol 5Pg 3188 | Productivity and Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: World; Reduced Inflation and Unemployment | 1987

Cavanaugh KL. Time series analysis of US and Canadian inflation and unemployment: a test of a field theoretic hypothesis. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (pp.799-804). Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association, 1987. Significant improvements shown in the Okun Misery Index (ie., decreased inflation and unemployment), greater strength and stability of the national currency, and improvements in other key economic indicators.Time series intervention analysis of monthly U.S. and Canadian trends (a misery index combining inflation and unemployment) showed improved economic conditions in months immediately after the number of participants exceeded the required number (1600) for the population of the U.S. and Canada.

World Peace | Sociological CPVol 5Pg 3207 | Productivity and Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: Nation: Misery Index Improvement in Economic Quality of Life | 1988

Cavanaugh KL, King KD. Simultaneous transfer function analysis of Okun’s misery index: improvement in the economic quality of life through Maharishi’s Vedic science and technology of consciousness. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (pp.491-496). Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association, 1988 Time series analysis of an economic “misery index” of U.S. inflation and unemployment rates demonstrated reduction in this index following periods of high numbers of participants in the group practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program at Maharishi International University, controlling for changes in key U.S. economic variables.

World Peace | Sociological CPVol 5Pg 3224 | Productivity and Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: National Misery Index Improvement in Economic Quality of Life | 1989

Cavanaugh KL, King KD, Ertuna C. A multiple-input transfer function model of Okun’s misery index: an empirical test of the Maharishi Effect. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (pp.565-570), Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association, 1989 Periods with large numbers in the group practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi program led to a marked reduction in an index of inflation and unemployment in the U.S., controlling for the effect of business cycle fluctuations as well as short and long term effects of other major economic variables.

World Peace | Sociological CPVol 5Pg 3240 | Productivity and Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: Nation: Reduced Inflation and Unemployment | 1989

Cavanaugh KL, King KD, Titus BD. Consciousness and the quality of economic life: empirical research on the macroeconomic effects of the collective practice of Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Proceedings of the Midwest Management Society (pp.183-190). Chicago: Midwest Management Society, 1989 This paper reviews a series of studies that document improvements in the national economies of the US and Canada, as indicated by an index of decreased inflation and decreased unemployment, when the number of participants in Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program exceeded the square root of one percent of their national population. Significant improvements shown in the Okun Misery Index (ie., decreased inflation and unemployment), greater strength and stability of the national currency, and improvements in other key economic indicators.Time series intervention analysis of monthly U.S. and Canadian trends (a misery index combining inflation and unemployment) showed improved economic conditions in months immediately after the number of participants exceeded the required number (1600) for the population of the U.S. and Canada

World Peace | Sociological CPVol 5Pg 3260 | Productivity and Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: World | 2005

Davies JL, Alexander CN. Alleviating political violence through reducing collective tension: impactassessment analysis of the Lebanon war. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):285-338 This study expands upon the (Journal of Conflict Resolution 1988 32(4):776-812) study of the Lebanon conflict (1983) to include a 27-month period during which there were seven assemblies of TM-Sidhi participants of sufficient size to influence the Lebanese conflict according to the square root of one percent formula. These assemblies, which ranged from a small group in the central area of fighting within Lebanon to larger groups in Israel, Yugoslavia and the Netherlands, to three groups of up to 7,800 in the U.S., were the only ones during this time period of sufficient size in relation to their proximity to Lebanon to exceed the threshold for a predicted impact there. The 821-day data base, which included daily levels of cooperation and conflict and the number of reported war fatalities and injuries, was generated using independently developed 16 point scales of cooperation and conflict. Events were coded by an experienced Lebanese coder, blind to the experimental hypotheses and unaware of the assemblies and the technology employed, from eight international new sources. Time series intervention analysis indicated that in contrast to non-experimental days, during the 93 days when assemblies where sufficiently large for a predicted impact in Lebanon there was an estimated: a) a 66% mean increase in level of cooperation among antagonists (p<10 to the -6); b) 48% reduction in level of conflict (p<10 to the -8); c) 71% reduction in war fatalities (p<10 to the -10); d) 68% reduction in war injuries (p<10 to -6). A composite Peace/War Index comprised of these variables indicated that each of the 7 assemblies had an independently positive effect on the war and that their combined influence was highly statistically significant (p<10 to the minus 19). The study employs an interrupted time series design with multiple replications, which offers a “very powerful” basis for addressing the issue of causality. Analysis showed that changes in temperature did not account for any of the improvements during the assemblies. The possible impact of religious and national holidays was controlled for.

World Peace | Sociological CPVol 6Pg 4091 | Productivity and Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: Nation: Reduced Violent Fatalities | 1990

Dillbeck MC. Test of a field hypothesis of consciousness and social change: time series analysis of participation in the TM-Sidhi program and reduction of violent death in the US. Social Indicators Research 1990 22(4):399-418 Improved Quality of National Life: Improvement on a Weekly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, and Suicide (United States 1982-1985). Since 1982 the size of the group practicing the TM-Sidhi program in Fairfield, Iowa has periodically exceeded the square root of 1% of U.S. population. A detailed analysis of the U.S. quality of life using time series intervention and transfer function analysis during 1979 to 1985 found reduced weekly fatalities due to violence on weeks immediately after the size of the TM-Sidhi group exceeded the square root of one percent of the U.S. population. This analysis showed that two-thirds of the observed decrease in U.S. fatalities from 1979 to 1985 could be attributed to the group practice of the TM-Sidhi program.

World Peace | Sociological CPVol 5Pg 3172 | Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: City | 1988

Dillbeck MC, Banus CB, Polanzi C, Landrith III GS. Test of a field model of consciousness and social change: Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and decreased urban crime. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 1988 9(4):457-486 The 1981 study published in Journal of Crime and Justice 1981 4:25-45 was expanded upon when investigation was extended to two random samples of 160 cities and 80 Standard Statistical Metropolitan Areas, comprising almost half of the U.S. urban population. Similar results to the 1981 were found. The impact of group practice of the TM-Sidhi program on crime rates was studied in Washington, DC between the years 1981 to 1986, when a group totaling 300 to 500 experts assembled there twice daily. A major collaborative study by researchers at several universities using time series transfer function analysis, found a highly significant relationship between increased attendance in the creating coherence groups and reduced levels of violent crime. The data supported a causal interpretation. The analysis also showed that other factors including weather, police coverage, population age changes and Neighborhood Watch programs, could not account for this reduction in crime. During the five-year period from October 1981 to mid 1986, when the coherence creating groups were present, violent crimes decreased by almost 50% in sharp contrast to previous District trends.

World Peace | Sociological CPVol 5Pg 3151 | Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: City | 1987

Dillbeck MC, Cavanaugh KL, Glenn T, Orme-Johnson DW, Mittlefehldt V. Effects of Transcendental Meditation and the TM-Sidhi program on quality of life indicators: consciousness as a field. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 1987 8(1):67-104 At the metropolitan and state levels, time series intervention studies found reduced crime in Metro Manila, Philippines, in New Delhi India and in Puerto Rico during periods in which large groups had assembled in these locations for conferences involving daily practice of the TM-Sidhi program. Other intervention studies in Metro Manila and Rhode Island found similar improvements in holistic indices of quality of life composed of available social indicators.

World Peace | Sociological | Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: City | 1981

Dillbeck MC, Landrith III G, Orme-Johnson DW. The Transcendental Meditation program and crime rate change in a sample of forty-eight cities. Journal of Crime and Justice 1981 4:25-45 In the first of many published studies in peer-reviewed journals, crime rates in the first 24 U.S. cities in which at least 1% of the population had learned the Transcendental Meditation technique were compared to matched control cities. Total crime dropped 16% in the “1% cities” compared to the control cities, controlling for key demographic variables.

World Peace | Sociological CPVol 6Pg 4114 | Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: Nation | 1996

Dillbeck MC, Rainforth MV. Impact assessment analysis of behavioral quality of life indices: effects of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section (pp.38-43). Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association, 1996 Improved Quality of National Life: Improvements Controlling for Economic Changes on a Monthly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, Suicide, Deaths Due to Accidents (other than Motor Vehicle), Notifiable Diseases, Alcohol Consumption, Cigarette Consumption (United States, 1970-1986); Improvements Controlling for Economic Changes on a Monthly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, Suicide, Cigarette Consumption (Canada 1972-1986)

World Peace | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Quantum Mechanical Consc | 1995

Farwell LA, Farwell GW. Quantum mechanical processes and consciousness. Bulletin of the American Physical Society 1995 40(2):956-957 We investigated the possible effect of human consciousness and the intention on a quantum-mechanical process.

World Peace | Sociological CPVol6 Pg 4130 | Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: World | 1990

Gelderloos P, Cavanaugh KL, Davies JL. The dynamics of US-Soviet relations, 1979-1986: a simultaneous transfer function analysis of US-Soviet relations. A test of the Maharishi Effect.
Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section (pp.297-302). Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association, 1990
Improved USA/USSR Relations: Improved USA Statements and Actions Towards the USSR and Improved USSR Statements and Actions Towards the USA (USA and USSR 1979-1986). This time series study of an independent data bank found that when the size of the group of participants in the TM Sidhi program in the US was larger than the square root of one percent of the US population (a little over 1500 at the time from 1979 to 1986) there was a significant increase in positivity of actions of the United States towards the Soviet Union compared to periods when the size of the group was below 1500. When the group of participants in the TM-Sidhi program was larger than 1700, creating the strongest influence of the Maharishi Effect in the United States, there was also an independent significant increase in positivity of actions of the Soviet Union toward the United States.

World Peace | Sociological CPVol 5Pg 3249 | Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: World: Improved Soviet US Relations | 1988

Gelderloos P, Frid MJ, Goddard PH, Xue X, Löliger SA. Creating world peace through the collective practice of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field: improved US-Soviet relations. Social Science Perspectives Journal 1988 2(4):80-94 Time series analysis of public statements of the U.S. president concerning the Soviet Union indicated a warming of U.S. -Soviet relations associated with periods of high participation in the group practice of the Transcendental and TM-Sidhi program.

World Peace | Sociological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect | 2001

Goodman RS, Goodman DH, Wolfson RA. A consciousness-based approach to human security. In MV Naidu (ed.), Perspectives on Human Security (pp.189-210). Brandon, Manitoba: Canadian Peace Research and Education Association, 2001. Over 50 studies have shown the application of the collective practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program in neutralizing collective stress in society, thereby increasing quality of life, and reducing situations of economic hardship, conflict, violence, and aggression on local, regional, and international scales. These findings indicate that by deploying groups of such experts in troubled regions, the situations of stress and conflict could be alleviated, providing a basis for long-term solutions and sustained peace.

World Peace | Sociological CPVol 6Pg 4086 | Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: City | 1999

Hagelin JS, Rainforth MV, Orme-Johnson DW, Cavanaugh KL, Alexander CN, Shatkin SF, Davies JL, Hughes AO, Ross E. Effects of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program on preventing violent crime in Washington, DC: results of the National Demonstration Project, June-July 1993. Social Indicators Research 1999 47(2):153-201 Improved Quality of City and National Life as Measured by Decreased Violent Crime in the National Capitol (Washington, DC, USA June and July 1993). This six million dollar scientific demonstration, involving 4,000 participants over a period of two months was on of the largest and most rigorously designed sociological experiments in history. The prediction of a 20% drop in crime and the specific research methodology to be used were lodged in advance with the national and international press and with a 27 member Project Review Board, consisting of renowned scientists, government leaders and members of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department (DCMPD). A research protocol, specifying both the research methodology (time series transfer function analysis) and the independent and dependent variables was approved by the Project Review Board and notarized on June 17, 1993. By the end of the Demonstration Project, when the group was largest, violent crime dropped sharply by more than 23% (p<10 to the -9th) below the predicted level without the creating coherence group. The analysis specifically controlled for variables known to influence violent crime and found that the drop in crime could not be attributed to temperature, precipitation, changes in police surveillance, weekend effects or trends in the data. The results were not sensitive to the specific assumptions used in constructing the time series model. This study found that during a two-month period in which an increasingly large group of participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program assembled in Washington, DC, there was a significant decrease in violent crime in the District of Columbia, violent crime decreased as the size of the group increased.

World Peace | Sociological CPVol6 Pg 4079 | Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: City | 1996

Hatchard GD, Deans AJ, Cavanaugh KL, Orme-Johnson DW. The Maharishi Effect: a model for social improvement. Time series analysis of a phase transition to reduced crime in Merseyside Metropolitan Area. Psychology, Crime and Law 1996 2(3):165-174 Improved Quality of City Life: Decreased Crime Rate (Merseyside, England (1988-1991) This study found decreased crime rate in Merseyside, England from 1988-1991, after the establishment of a permanent group of participants in the TM-Sidhi program, including Yogic Flying which exceeded in size the square root of one percent of the population of the metropolitan area. Time series analysis was used to test the theory that Merseyside crime rate was reduced by a group practicing Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Previous research suggests that a phase transition to increased orderliness as evidenced by reduced crime rate should occur when the group size approaches the square root of 1% of the total population. Analysis of Merseyside crime data and coherence group size from 1978 to 1991 shows that a phase transition occurred March 1988 with a 13.4% drop in crime when the group size first exceeded the square root of 1% or Maharishi Effect threshold (p=.00006). Up to 1992 Merseyside crime rate has remained steady in contrast to the national crime rate which has increased by 45%. In 1987 Merseyside had the third highest crime rate, 40% below levels predicted by the previous behavior of the series. There were 255,000 less crimes in Merseyside from 1988 to 1992 than would have been expected had Merseyside continued to follow the national crime trend. Home office figures indicate savings to Merseyside could exceed 1250 million pounds sterling for the five year period. Demographic changes, economic variables, police practice and other factors could not account for the changes.

World Peace | Physiological | Productivity and Quality of Life | Group Meditation | 2007

Mason LI, Patterson RP, Radin DI. Exploratory study: the random number generator and group meditation. Journal of Scientific Exploration 2007 21(2):295-317 Experiments using truly random number generators (RNGs) have reportedly demonstrated anomalous deviations in various group settings. To explore these claims, group meditation (average 261 females, 398 males) was tested as a venue for possibly inducing these deviations using a true RNG located in a large meditation hall. A total of 94 hours and 33,927 trials, each trial consisting of 1,000 random bits collected in 10-second periods, were recorded during meditation (Transcendental Meditation and advanced techniques). Cumulative deviation results were in accordance with chance expectation for baseline data, but showed significant non-randomness for the first (p , 0.00001) and second set of meditation data (p , 0.00001). A sub-section of the meditations, known as ‘‘yogic flying,’’ showed significant deviations for both the first (p , 0.000001) and the second data sets (p , 0.000001). Results at a second test location known as the Vedic Observatory were significant for the first (p , 0.01) and second data collections (p , 0.05). All results were analyzed for any possible mean drift by subtracting differences in the pre- and post-test baseline slopes. After the adjustment for any drift, the direction and the experimental results were still significantly atypical, with a greater number of zeros being generated than ones. The use of non-exclusive-or-ed methods to eliminate drifts of the mean of the random data is discussed as well as the use of RNGs for measuring changes in collective consciousness associated with standardized meditation.

World Peace | Sociological CPVol 6Pg 4123 | Quality of Life | Reply to Critique Journal of Conflict Resolution | 1990

Orme-Johnson DW, Alexander CN, Davies JL. The effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field: reply to a methodological critique. Journal of Conflict Resolution 1990 34(4):756-768 Strong Replication of Original Research Methodology: Decreased International Conflict (Israel and Lebanon, August/September 1983)

World Peace | Sociological CPVol 4Pg2653 | Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: World | 1988

Orme-Johnson DW, Alexander CN, Davies JL, Chandler HM, Larimore WE. International peace project in the Middle East: the effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field. Journal of Conflict Resolution 1988 32(4):776-812 This is an especially critical experimental test of the hypotheses that the group practice of the TM-Sidhi program by the square root of one percent of a population would positively affect sociological measures was conducted in Israel in August and September of 1983. Based on the results of previous experiments, the research hypotheses and the specific measures to be used in the study were lodged in advance of the experiment with an independent review board of scientists in the U.S. and Israel. It was predicted that group practice of the TM-Sidhi program in Jerusalem would reduce stress in the collective consciousness of Israel and Lebanon. Time series intervention and transfer function analyses were used to study the effects of changes in the size of the group on several variables and composite indices reflecting the quality of life in Jerusalem and Israel, and also the war in Lebanon. This study shows a striking co-variation between the size of the group of TM-Sidhi participants and a composite index of quality of life that was the arithmetic average of standardized scores for crime rate, traffic accidents, fires, stock market, national mood and the number of war deaths as a measure of war intensity in Lebanon. Increases in the size of the group had a statistically significant effect on the individual variables and on the composite quality of life index. Transfer function analysis indicated that the group had a leading relationship to change on the quality of life indicators (by one day), supporting a causal interpretation. There was a 34% reduction in war intensity and a 76% reduction in war deaths during periods of high numbers of TM-Sidhi participants. Time series analysis demonstrated that the effect could not be attributed to seasonality (such as weekend effects), to holidays, or to changes in temperature. The hypothesis that the influence occurs on a fundamental and holistic level of nature is supported by the fact that the arithmetic average of the different measures produced the clearest results and by the observation that the different sociological measures tended to change independently of each other when the group size was small, but all changed coherently in a positive direction as the group size was increased.

World Peace | Sociological | Review of Research | Reply to Critics: Consciousness a Field Maharishi Effect | 2009

Orme-Johnson DW, Oates RM. A field-theoretic view of consciousness: reply to critics. Journal of Scientific Exploration 2009 23(2):139-166 This paper replies to a critique (Fales & Markovsky, 1997) of a study reporting that group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program had a measurable effect on objective measures of the quality of life in Israel and the war in Lebanon (Orme-Johnson et al., 1988). The critics proposed various cultural/political events as alternative explanations for the results. These events could not explain the results, as indicated by (1) simple inspection of the published data; (2) statistical analyses controlling for these events; (3) analyses of reduced data sets that completely eliminated the days of the events from the analyses; and (4) analyses of six random samples of 50% of the data. Although some of the cultural/political events suggested did have a significant effect on a composite index of crime, traffic accidents, fires, war intensity, stock market, and national mood, the effects of these events were independent of the effect of the meditators and could not explain it. We argue that Maharishi’s theory of collective consciousness provides a unifying framework that explains these results through a logical structure of clearly defined, operationalized terms grounded in physiological and behavioral research, which makes specific quantifiable and socially important predictions that have been extensively replicated. Fales and Markovsky’s (1997) criticism of the International Peace Project in the Middle East (Orme-Johnson et al., 1988) is not supported by either the empirical data nor by a logical analysis of the theory. Their conjecture that social, political, and military events at the time could explain the results does not hold up with simple inspection of the published data nor with decisive statistical tests. Their position that direct interactions between humans via a field of consciousness is a “heterodox” hypothesis not worthy of publication in social science journals is challenged by 33 published studies on the Maharishi Effect as well as by several other independent research programs (e.g., Dossey, 1999; Jonas & Crawford, 1997, 2003; Nelson et al., 2002; Radin, 1997, 2002, 2004, 2006; Schlitz, 1996; Schlitz & Braud, 1997; Schlitz et al., 2004; Wackermann et al., 2003). We provide evidence that the theory of the Maharishi Effect has clearly defined, operationalizable terms and that it makes specific predictions, which have been repeatedly tested using objective, public data sources, with hypotheses being lodged in advance with independent observers. This theory has been tested on a larger scale than any other theory of conflict resolution (Orme-Johnson et al., 1990). More than any other approach in the social sciences, it has demonstrated outcomes that are directly relevant to resolving national and international conflicts and improving the quality of life in society (Assimakis & Dillbeck, 1995; Cavanaugh & King, 1988; Davies & Alexander, 2005; Dillbeck, 1990; Dillbeck et al., 1987, 1988; Gelderloos et al., 1990; Hagelin et al., 1999; Orme-Johnson, 2009; Orme-Johnson et al., 1988, 1990).

World Peace | Physiological & Sociological | EEG | Field Effect; Coherence Spreads | 1989

Travis FT, Orme-Johnson DW. Field model of consciousness: EEG coherence changes as indicators of field effects. International Journal of Neuroscience 1989 49(3/4):203-211 Changes in EEG coherence patterns were used to test a field model that posits a common field of “pure consciousness” linking all individuals. In ten trails as, EEG was concurrently measured from pairs of subjects, one practicing Transcendental Meditation (TM) and the TM-Sidhi technique of Yogic Flying – said to enliven the proposed field of consciousness – and the other performing a computer task. Box-Jenkins ARIMA transfer function analysis indicated that coherence changes in the Yogic Flyer’s 5.7 – 8.5 Hz band. the band sensitive to TM and Yogic Flying consistently led coherence changes in the other subjects 4.7-42.7 Hz band. A clear relationship was seen among subjective reports, coherence patterns and strength of intervention effects. These data support a field model of consciousness.

World Peace & Health | Sociological | Quality of Life | Maharishi Effect: Nation | 1988

Orme-Johnson DW, Gelderloos P, Dillbeck MC. The long-term effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field on the quality of life in the United States (1960 to 1983). Social Science Perspectives Journal 1988 2(4):127-146 Results during large coherence creating groups practicing the TM or TM-Sidhi program include reduced incidence of infectious diseases, fewer hospital admissions, and fewer psychiatric emergencies.

World Peace & Social Behavior | Sociological | Quality of Life & Rehabilitation | Maharishi Effect: World | 2003

Orme-Johnson DW, Dillbeck MC, Alexander CN. Preventing terrorism and international conflict: effects of large assemblies of participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs.Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):283-302 A global-scale study published in the Journal of Offender Rehabilitation documented a 72% drop in international terrorism when groups practicing the TM-Sidhi Program were large enough to affect the global population. Terrorism returned to previous levels after the experiment.

World Peace & Social Behavior | Physiological CPVol 3 Pg1724 | EEG | Field Effect; Coherence Spreads | 1982

Orme-Johnson DW, Dillbeck MC, Wallace RK, Landrith III GS. Intersubject EEG coherence: is consciousness a field? International Journal of Neuroscience 1982 16(3/4):203-209 EEG coherence was found to increase between subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique at precisely the time at which 2,500 individuals were engaged in the group practice of the TM-Sidhi program over 1,000 miles away.


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