Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation program:
Benefits to the Community, Nation and World
This research list compiles summaries, abstracts, and results on the benefits of TM to society, out of the 435 original studies and reviews of research published in independent peer-reviewed journals or other edited scientific publications from 1970 to the present.
Group practice of Transcendental Meditation and homicide trends.
Cavanaugh KL, Dillbeck MC, Orme-Johnson DW. Studies in Asian Social Science Evaluating a field theory of consciousness and social change: group practice of Transcendental Meditation and homicide trends.
The present study is consistent with prior research in reporting evidence of reduced U.S. homicide trends associated with the establishment of a group of individuals practicing the TM and TM-Sidhi program comprising approximately the square root of 1% of the U.S. population. The current study extends the findings of previous research on this social experiment by (1) replicating a significant reduction in homicide trend during the experimental period using an expanded data sample with longer experimental and baseline periods and (2) confirming the prediction of a significant increase in the homicide trend during a newly added post-experimental period when the TM-Sidhi group substantially decreased in size.
The statistically and substantively significant reduction in homicide-rate trend during the experimental period, as predicted, was followed by a significant predicted increase in trend during the post-experimental period. The results of this “baseline reversal” quasi-experimental design are consistent with a posited causal influence. These theoretically predicted changes in trend in the opposite direction at the theoretically predicted times are consistent with—but, of course do not necessarily imply—a causal interpretation of these results. Also, these changes in homicide trends do not appear to be plausibly explained by other variables known to influence homicide.
Orme-Johnson DW, Cavanaugh KL, Dillbeck MC, Goodman RS. Field-Effects of Consciousness: A Seventeen-Year Study of the Effects of Group Practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programs on Reducing National Stress in the United States. World Journal of Social Science Vol 9, No 2 (2022)
Many conceptions of field-effects of consciousness have been proposed. The most well-developed of these is Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s, which holds that every individual in society, whether stressed or coherent, contributes to collective consciousness. Collective consciousness in turn impacts the life of every individual, guiding the trends of life in the nation. Over 600 studies have documented that the Transcendental Meditation® and advanced TM-Sidhi® program increase coherence in the individual, as indicated by improved brain integration, health, cognitive abilities, and behavior. Fifty additional studies indicate that these more coherent individuals radiate an influence of coherence throughout society, as reflected in reductions of conflicts and improvements in quality of life. In the present study, interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate the effectiveness of this population-level health intervention that was implemented at a clearly defined point in time. It found that during the Demonstration period of 2007-2011, compared to the Baseline period of 2000 to 2006, when a group practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi techniques reached or exceeded a predicted required threshold of √1% of the U.S. population (1725) there were significant and meaningful trend reductions in indicators of national stress: homicides, rape, aggravated assault, robbery, infant mortality, drug-related deaths, motor vehicle fatalities, fatalities due to injuries in youths ages 10-19, and in a composite index of all eight variables (p’s < .0001). Moreover, from 2007 to 2016, when the size of the group decreased to below the required threshold, all stress indicators increased again. Potential alternative explanations in terms of changes in economic conditions, political leadership, population demographics, and policing strategies could not explain the results. The results support a new highly practical field-theoretic understanding of social dynamics.
Field Effects of Consciousness and Reduction in U.S. Urban Murder Rates: Evaluation of a Prospective Quasi-Experiment
Kenneth L. Cavanaugh, Michael C. Dillbeck. Field Effects of Consciousness and Reduction in U.S. Urban Murder Rates: Evaluation of a Prospective Quasi-Experiment. Journal of Health and Environmental Research. Vol. 3, No. 3-1, 2017, pp. 32-43. Creation of a sustainable society ideally should include promotion of an enhanced overall quality of life, including freedom from crime, violence, and other key indicators of social stress. This study is part of a comprehensive empirical evaluation of the results of a prospective four-year quasi-experiment that sought to reduce rates of homicide and violent crime as well as to improve other measures of the quality of life and public health in the United States. The current research tests the hypothesis that group practice of the Transcendental Meditation® (TM) and TM-Sidhi® program by a group of theoretically predicted size would be sufficient to reduce collective stress in the larger population, as reflected in decreased rates of homicide in a sample of 206 large U.S. urban areas. Time series regression analysis of monthly data for 2002–2010 using a broken-trend intervention model found significant reductions in trend for the urban homicide rate during the 2007–2010 intervention period (p = 1 x 10–13). Controlling for pre-intervention trends, seasonality, and autocorrelation, the estimated total reduction in homicide rate was 28.4% (7.1% annually). The practical significance of these findings is also indicated by an estimated 4,136 murders averted by the reduced trend in murder rate during the intervention. Diagnostic tests are satisfactory and indicate that the results are unlikely due to “spurious regression.” The mechanism for these macro-social effects is discussed in the light of possible alternative hypotheses.
Societal Violence and Collective Consciousness: Reduction of U.S. Homicide and Urban Violent Crime Rates
Michael C. Dillbeck and Kenneth L. Cavanaugh. Societal Violence and Collective Consciousness: Reduction of U.S. Homicide and Urban Violent Crime Rates. SAGE Open April-June 2016: 1 –16. This research tests the hypothesis that group practice of the Transcendental Meditation® (TM) and TM-Sidhi® program by a group of sufficient size is associated with reduced rates of homicide and violent crime. Data from a prospective quasi-experiment were analyzed using intervention analysis or interrupted time series analysis. Dependent variables are time series of the U.S. monthly homicide rate as well as violent crime rate from a sample of 206 cities. The binary intervention variable is based on the size of the largest U.S. TM-Sidhi group. Intervention effects were analyzed by time series regression using a broken-trend intervention model. As hypothesized, there was a statistically and practically significant shift in trend in the direction of reduced rates for each of the variables beginning with the onset of the intervention period. Diagnostic tests indicate that key statistical assumptions of the analysis are satisfied. Alternative hypotheses are considered for the apparent effect of macro-level social behavioral change without micro-level behavioral interaction.
Orme-Johnson DW, Oates RM. A field-theoretic view of consciousness: reply to critics. Journal of Scientific Exploration 2009 23(2):139-166 This paper replies to a critique (Fales & Markovsky, 1997) of a study reporting that group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program had a measurable effect on objective measures of the quality of life in Israel and the war in Lebanon (Orme-Johnson et al., 1988). The critics proposed various cultural/political events as alternative explanations for the results. These events could not explain the results, as indicated by (1) simple inspection of the published data; (2) statistical analyses controlling for these events; (3) analyses of reduced data sets that completely eliminated the days of the events from the analyses; and (4) analyses of six random samples of 50% of the data. Although some of the cultural/political events suggested did have a significant effect on a composite index of crime, traffic accidents, fires, war intensity, stock market, and national mood, the effects of these events were independent of the effect of the meditators and could not explain it. We argue that Maharishi’s theory of collective consciousness provides a unifying framework that explains these results through a logical structure of clearly defined, operationalized terms grounded in physiological and behavioral research, which makes specific quantifiable and socially important predictions that have been extensively replicated. Fales and Markovsky’s (1997) criticism of the International Peace Project in the Middle East (Orme-Johnson et al., 1988) is not supported by either the empirical data nor by a logical analysis of the theory. Their conjecture that social, political, and military events at the time could explain the results does not hold up with simple inspection of the published data nor with decisive statistical tests. Their position that direct interactions between humans via a field of consciousness is a “heterodox” hypothesis not worthy of publication in social science journals is challenged by 33 published studies on the Maharishi Effect as well as by several other independent research programs (e.g., Dossey, 1999; Jonas & Crawford, 1997, 2003; Nelson et al., 2002; Radin, 1997, 2002, 2004, 2006; Schlitz, 1996; Schlitz & Braud, 1997; Schlitz et al., 2004; Wackermann et al., 2003). We provide evidence that the theory of the Maharishi Effect has clearly defined, operationalizable terms and that it makes specific predictions, which have been repeatedly tested using objective, public data sources, with hypotheses being lodged in advance with independent observers. This theory has been tested on a larger scale than any other theory of conflict resolution (Orme-Johnson et al., 1990). More than any other approach in the social sciences, it has demonstrated outcomes that are directly relevant to resolving national and international conflicts and improving the quality of life in society (Assimakis & Dillbeck, 1995; Cavanaugh & King, 1988; Davies & Alexander, 2005; Dillbeck, 1990; Dillbeck et al., 1987, 1988; Gelderloos et al., 1990; Hagelin et al., 1999; Orme-Johnson, 2009; Orme-Johnson et al., 1988, 1990).
Davies JL, Alexander CN. Alleviating political violence through reducing collective tension: impactassessment analysis of the Lebanon war. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005 17(1):285-338 This study expands upon the (Journal of Conflict Resolution 1988 32(4):776-812) study of the Lebanon conflict (1983) to include a 27-month period during which there were seven assemblies of TM-Sidhi participants of sufficient size to influence the Lebanese conflict according to the square root of one percent formula. These assemblies, which ranged from a small group in the central area of fighting within Lebanon to larger groups in Israel, Yugoslavia and the Netherlands, to three groups of up to 7,800 in the U.S., were the only ones during this time period of sufficient size in relation to their proximity to Lebanon to exceed the threshold for a predicted impact there. The 821-day data base, which included daily levels of cooperation and conflict and the number of reported war fatalities and injuries, was generated using independently developed 16 point scales of cooperation and conflict. Events were coded by an experienced Lebanese coder, blind to the experimental hypotheses and unaware of the assemblies and the technology employed, from eight international new sources. Time series intervention analysis indicated that in contrast to non-experimental days, during the 93 days when assemblies where sufficiently large for a predicted impact in Lebanon there was an estimated: a) a 66% mean increase in level of cooperation among antagonists (p<10 to the -6); b) 48% reduction in level of conflict (p<10 to the -8); c) 71% reduction in war fatalities (p<10 to the -10); d) 68% reduction in war injuries (p<10 to -6). A composite Peace/War Index comprised of these variables indicated that each of the 7 assemblies had an independently positive effect on the war and that their combined influence was highly statistically significant (p<10 to the minus 19). The study employs an interrupted time series design with multiple replications, which offers a “very powerful” basis for addressing the issue of causality. Analysis showed that changes in temperature did not account for any of the improvements during the assemblies. The possible impact of religious and national holidays was controlled for.
Orme-Johnson DW, Dillbeck MC, Alexander CN. Preventing terrorism and international conflict: effects of large assemblies of participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs.Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 2003 36(1-4):283-302 A global-scale study published in the Journal of Offender Rehabilitation documented a 72% drop in international terrorism when groups practicing the TM-Sidhi Program were large enough to affect the global population. Terrorism returned to previous levels after the experiment.
Mason LI, Patterson RP, Radin DI. Exploratory study: the random number generator and group meditation. Journal of Scientific Exploration 2007 21(2):295-317 Experiments using truly random number generators (RNGs) have reportedly demonstrated anomalous deviations in various group settings. To explore these claims, group meditation (average 261 females, 398 males) was tested as a venue for possibly inducing these deviations using a true RNG located in a large meditation hall. A total of 94 hours and 33,927 trials, each trial consisting of 1,000 random bits collected in 10-second periods, were recorded during meditation (Transcendental Meditation and advanced techniques). Cumulative deviation results were in accordance with chance expectation for baseline data, but showed significant non-randomness for the first (p , 0.00001) and second set of meditation data (p , 0.00001). A sub-section of the meditations, known as ‘‘yogic flying,’’ showed significant deviations for both the first (p , 0.000001) and the second data sets (p , 0.000001). Results at a second test location known as the Vedic Observatory were significant for the first (p , 0.01) and second data collections (p , 0.05). All results were analyzed for any possible mean drift by subtracting differences in the pre- and post-test baseline slopes. After the adjustment for any drift, the direction and the experimental results were still significantly atypical, with a greater number of zeros being generated than ones. The use of non-exclusive-or-ed methods to eliminate drifts of the mean of the random data is discussed as well as the use of RNGs for measuring changes in collective consciousness associated with standardized meditation.
Goodman RS, Goodman DH, Wolfson RA. A consciousness-based approach to human security. In MV Naidu (ed.), Perspectives on Human Security (pp.189-210). Brandon, Manitoba: Canadian Peace Research and Education Association, 2001. Over 50 studies have shown the application of the collective practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program in neutralizing collective stress in society, thereby increasing quality of life, and reducing situations of economic hardship, conflict, violence, and aggression on local, regional, and international scales. These findings indicate that by deploying groups of such experts in troubled regions, the situations of stress and conflict could be alleviated, providing a basis for long-term solutions and sustained peace.
Hagelin JS, Rainforth MV, Orme-Johnson DW, Cavanaugh KL, Alexander CN, Shatkin SF, Davies JL, Hughes AO, Ross E. Effects of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program on preventing violent crime in Washington, DC: results of the National Demonstration Project, June-July 1993. Social Indicators Research 1999 47(2):153-201 Improved Quality of City and National Life as Measured by Decreased Violent Crime in the National Capitol (Washington, DC, USA June and July 1993). This six million dollar scientific demonstration, involving 4,000 participants over a period of two months was on of the largest and most rigorously designed sociological experiments in history. The prediction of a 20% drop in crime and the specific research methodology to be used were lodged in advance with the national and international press and with a 27 member Project Review Board, consisting of renowned scientists, government leaders and members of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department (DCMPD). A research protocol, specifying both the research methodology (time series transfer function analysis) and the independent and dependent variables was approved by the Project Review Board and notarized on June 17, 1993. By the end of the Demonstration Project, when the group was largest, violent crime dropped sharply by more than 23% (p<10 to the -9th) below the predicted level without the creating coherence group. The analysis specifically controlled for variables known to influence violent crime and found that the drop in crime could not be attributed to temperature, precipitation, changes in police surveillance, weekend effects or trends in the data. The results were not sensitive to the specific assumptions used in constructing the time series model. This study found that during a two-month period in which an increasingly large group of participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program assembled in Washington, DC, there was a significant decrease in violent crime in the District of Columbia, violent crime decreased as the size of the group increased.
Dillbeck MC, Rainforth MV. Impact assessment analysis of behavioral quality of life indices: effects of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section (pp.38-43). Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association, 1996 Improved Quality of National Life: Improvements Controlling for Economic Changes on a Monthly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, Suicide, Deaths Due to Accidents (other than Motor Vehicle), Notifiable Diseases, Alcohol Consumption, Cigarette Consumption (United States, 1970-1986); Improvements Controlling for Economic Changes on a Monthly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, Suicide, Cigarette Consumption (Canada 1972-1986)
Hatchard GD, Deans AJ, Cavanaugh KL, Orme-Johnson DW. The Maharishi Effect: a model for social improvement. Time series analysis of a phase transition to reduced crime in Merseyside Metropolitan Area. Psychology, Crime and Law 1996 2(3):165-174 Improved Quality of City Life: Decreased Crime Rate (Merseyside, England (1988-1991) This study found decreased crime rate in Merseyside, England from 1988-1991, after the establishment of a permanent group of participants in the TM-Sidhi program, including Yogic Flying which exceeded in size the square root of one percent of the population of the metropolitan area. Time series analysis was used to test the theory that Merseyside crime rate was reduced by a group practicing Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Previous research suggests that a phase transition to increased orderliness as evidenced by reduced crime rate should occur when the group size approaches the square root of 1% of the total population. Analysis of Merseyside crime data and coherence group size from 1978 to 1991 shows that a phase transition occurred March 1988 with a 13.4% drop in crime when the group size first exceeded the square root of 1% or Maharishi Effect threshold (p=.00006). Up to 1992 Merseyside crime rate has remained steady in contrast to the national crime rate which has increased by 45%. In 1987 Merseyside had the third highest crime rate, 40% below levels predicted by the previous behavior of the series. There were 255,000 less crimes in Merseyside from 1988 to 1992 than would have been expected had Merseyside continued to follow the national crime trend. Home office figures indicate savings to Merseyside could exceed 1250 million pounds sterling for the five year period. Demographic changes, economic variables, police practice and other factors could not account for the changes.
Assimakis PD, Dillbeck MC. Time series analysis of improved quality of life in Canada: social change, collective consciousness, and the TM-Sidhi program. Psychological Reports 1995 76(3):1171-1193Improved Quality of National Life: Improvements on a Weekly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, and Suicide (Canada, 1983-1985); Improvements on a Monthly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, Suicide, Cigarette Consumption, and Worker-Days Lost in Strikes (Canada, 1972-1986). Reduced violent deaths were found in Canada when the size of the Maharishi University of Management group exceeded the square root of one percent of the combined populations of the U.S. and Canada. The two studies reported in this paper found improved quality of national life in Canada during periods when the size of the group of participants in the Transcendental Meditation Sidhi program in the USA exceeded the square root of one percent of the combined national populations of the USA and Canada. The first study found significant improvement in a weekly index measured by the sum of motor vehicle fatalities, homicides, and suicides, the second study documented significant improvement in a monthly index that combined the variables of motor vehicle fatalities, homicide, suicide, cigarette consumption and work days lost in strikes.
Farwell LA, Farwell GW. Quantum mechanical processes and consciousness. Bulletin of the American Physical Society 1995 40(2):956-957 We investigated the possible effect of human consciousness and the intention on a quantum-mechanical process.
Dillbeck MC. Test of a field hypothesis of consciousness and social change: time series analysis of participation in the TM-Sidhi program and reduction of violent death in the US. Social Indicators Research 1990 22(4):399-418 Improved Quality of National Life: Improvement on a Weekly Index Including Motor Vehicle Fatalities, Homicide, and Suicide (United States 1982-1985). Since 1982 the size of the group practicing the TM-Sidhi program in Fairfield, Iowa has periodically exceeded the square root of 1% of U.S. population. A detailed analysis of the U.S. quality of life using time series intervention and transfer function analysis during 1979 to 1985 found reduced weekly fatalities due to violence on weeks immediately after the size of the TM-Sidhi group exceeded the square root of one percent of the U.S. population. This analysis showed that two-thirds of the observed decrease in U.S. fatalities from 1979 to 1985 could be attributed to the group practice of the TM-Sidhi program.
Gelderloos P, Cavanaugh KL, Davies JL. The dynamics of US-Soviet relations, 1979-1986: a simultaneous transfer function analysis of US-Soviet relations. A test of the Maharishi Effect.
Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section (pp.297-302). Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association, 1990 Improved USA/USSR Relations: Improved USA Statements and Actions Towards the USSR and Improved USSR Statements and Actions Towards the USA (USA and USSR 1979-1986). This time series study of an independent data bank found that when the size of the group of participants in the TM Sidhi program in the US was larger than the square root of one percent of the US population (a little over 1500 at the time from 1979 to 1986) there was a significant increase in positivity of actions of the United States towards the Soviet Union compared to periods when the size of the group was below 1500. When the group of participants in the TM-Sidhi program was larger than 1700, creating the strongest influence of the Maharishi Effect in the United States, there was also an independent significant increase in positivity of actions of the Soviet Union toward the United States.
Orme-Johnson DW, Alexander CN, Davies JL. The effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field: reply to a methodological critique. Journal of Conflict Resolution 1990 34(4):756-768 Strong Replication of Original Research Methodology: Decreased International Conflict (Israel and Lebanon, August/September 1983)
Cavanaugh KL, King KD, Titus BD. Consciousness and the quality of economic life: empirical research on the macroeconomic effects of the collective practice of Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Proceedings of the Midwest Management Society (pp.183-190). Chicago: Midwest Management Society, 1989 This paper reviews a series of studies that document improvements in the national economies of the US and Canada, as indicated by an index of decreased inflation and decreased unemployment, when the number of participants in Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program exceeded the square root of one percent of their national population. Significant improvements shown in the Okun Misery Index (ie., decreased inflation and unemployment), greater strength and stability of the national currency, and improvements in other key economic indicators.Time series intervention analysis of monthly U.S. and Canadian trends (a misery index combining inflation and unemployment) showed improved economic conditions in months immediately after the number of participants exceeded the required number (1600) for the population of the U.S. and Canada
Cavanaugh KL, King KD, Ertuna C. A multiple-input transfer function model of Okun’s misery index: an empirical test of the Maharishi Effect. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (pp.565-570), Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association, 1989 Periods with large numbers in the group practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi program led to a marked reduction in an index of inflation and unemployment in the U.S., controlling for the effect of business cycle fluctuations as well as short and long term effects of other major economic variables.
Travis FT, Orme-Johnson DW. Field model of consciousness: EEG coherence changes as indicators of field effects. International Journal of Neuroscience 1989 49(3/4):203-211 Changes in EEG coherence patterns were used to test a field model that posits a common field of “pure consciousness” linking all individuals. In ten trails as, EEG was concurrently measured from pairs of subjects, one practicing Transcendental Meditation (TM) and the TM-Sidhi technique of Yogic Flying – said to enliven the proposed field of consciousness – and the other performing a computer task. Box-Jenkins ARIMA transfer function analysis indicated that coherence changes in the Yogic Flyer’s 5.7 – 8.5 Hz band. the band sensitive to TM and Yogic Flying consistently led coherence changes in the other subjects 4.7-42.7 Hz band. A clear relationship was seen among subjective reports, coherence patterns and strength of intervention effects. These data support a field model of consciousness.
Cavanaugh KL, King KD. Simultaneous transfer function analysis of Okun’s misery index: improvement in the economic quality of life through Maharishi’s Vedic science and technology of consciousness. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (pp.491-496). Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association, 1988 Time series analysis of an economic “misery index” of U.S. inflation and unemployment rates demonstrated reduction in this index following periods of high numbers of participants in the group practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program at Maharishi International University, controlling for changes in key U.S. economic variables.
Orme-Johnson DW, Gelderloos P, Dillbeck MC. The long-term effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field on the quality of life in the United States (1960 to 1983). Social Science Perspectives Journal 1988 2(4):127-146 Results during large coherence creating groups practicing the TM or TM-Sidhi program include reduced incidence of infectious diseases, fewer hospital admissions, and fewer psychiatric emergencies.
Gelderloos P, Frid MJ, Goddard PH, Xue X, Löliger SA. Creating world peace through the collective practice of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field: improved US-Soviet relations. Social Science Perspectives Journal 1988 2(4):80-94 Time series analysis of public statements of the U.S. president concerning the Soviet Union indicated a warming of U.S. -Soviet relations associated with periods of high participation in the group practice of the Transcendental and TM-Sidhi program.
Orme-Johnson DW, Alexander CN, Davies JL, Chandler HM, Larimore WE. International peace project in the Middle East: the effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field. Journal of Conflict Resolution 1988 32(4):776-812 This is an especially critical experimental test of the hypotheses that the group practice of the TM-Sidhi program by the square root of one percent of a population would positively affect sociological measures was conducted in Israel in August and September of 1983. Based on the results of previous experiments, the research hypotheses and the specific measures to be used in the study were lodged in advance of the experiment with an independent review board of scientists in the U.S. and Israel. It was predicted that group practice of the TM-Sidhi program in Jerusalem would reduce stress in the collective consciousness of Israel and Lebanon. Time series intervention and transfer function analyses were used to study the effects of changes in the size of the group on several variables and composite indices reflecting the quality of life in Jerusalem and Israel, and also the war in Lebanon. This study shows a striking co-variation between the size of the group of TM-Sidhi participants and a composite index of quality of life that was the arithmetic average of standardized scores for crime rate, traffic accidents, fires, stock market, national mood and the number of war deaths as a measure of war intensity in Lebanon. Increases in the size of the group had a statistically significant effect on the individual variables and on the composite quality of life index. Transfer function analysis indicated that the group had a leading relationship to change on the quality of life indicators (by one day), supporting a causal interpretation. There was a 34% reduction in war intensity and a 76% reduction in war deaths during periods of high numbers of TM-Sidhi participants. Time series analysis demonstrated that the effect could not be attributed to seasonality (such as weekend effects), to holidays, or to changes in temperature. The hypothesis that the influence occurs on a fundamental and holistic level of nature is supported by the fact that the arithmetic average of the different measures produced the clearest results and by the observation that the different sociological measures tended to change independently of each other when the group size was small, but all changed coherently in a positive direction as the group size was increased.
Dillbeck MC, Banus CB, Polanzi C, Landrith III GS. Test of a field model of consciousness and social change: Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and decreased urban crime. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 1988 9(4):457-486 The 1981 study published in Journal of Crime and Justice 1981 4:25-45 was expanded upon when investigation was extended to two random samples of 160 cities and 80 Standard Statistical Metropolitan Areas, comprising almost half of the U.S. urban population. Similar results to the 1981 were found. The impact of group practice of the TM-Sidhi program on crime rates was studied in Washington, DC between the years 1981 to 1986, when a group totaling 300 to 500 experts assembled there twice daily. A major collaborative study by researchers at several universities using time series transfer function analysis, found a highly significant relationship between increased attendance in the creating coherence groups and reduced levels of violent crime. The data supported a causal interpretation. The analysis also showed that other factors including weather, police coverage, population age changes and Neighborhood Watch programs, could not account for this reduction in crime. During the five-year period from October 1981 to mid 1986, when the coherence creating groups were present, violent crimes decreased by almost 50% in sharp contrast to previous District trends.
Dillbeck MC, Cavanaugh KL, Glenn T, Orme-Johnson DW, Mittlefehldt V. Effects of Transcendental Meditation and the TM-Sidhi program on quality of life indicators: consciousness as a field. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 1987 8(1):67-104 At the metropolitan and state levels, time series intervention studies found reduced crime in Metro Manila, Philippines, in New Delhi India and in Puerto Rico during periods in which large groups had assembled in these locations for conferences involving daily practice of the TM-Sidhi program. Other intervention studies in Metro Manila and Rhode Island found similar improvements in holistic indices of quality of life composed of available social indicators.
Cavanaugh KL. Time series analysis of US and Canadian inflation and unemployment: a test of a field theoretic hypothesis. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (pp.799-804). Alexandria, Virginia: American Statistical Association, 1987. Significant improvements shown in the Okun Misery Index (ie., decreased inflation and unemployment), greater strength and stability of the national currency, and improvements in other key economic indicators.Time series intervention analysis of monthly U.S. and Canadian trends (a misery index combining inflation and unemployment) showed improved economic conditions in months immediately after the number of participants exceeded the required number (1600) for the population of the U.S. and Canada.
Dillbeck MC, Landrith III G, Orme-Johnson DW. The Transcendental Meditation program and crime rate change in a sample of forty-eight cities. Journal of Crime and Justice 1981 4:25-45 In the first of many published studies in peer-reviewed journals, crime rates in the first 24 U.S. cities in which at least 1% of the population had learned the Transcendental Meditation technique were compared to matched control cities. Total crime dropped 16% in the “1% cities” compared to the control cities, controlling for key demographic variables.
Orme-Johnson DW, Dillbeck MC, Wallace RK, Landrith III GS. Intersubject EEG coherence: is consciousness a field? International Journal of Neuroscience 1982 16(3/4):203-209 EEG coherence was found to increase between subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique at precisely the time at which 2,500 individuals were engaged in the group practice of the TM-Sidhi program over 1,000 miles away.